THE MARKET REVOLUTION AND THE DECLINE OF ACRICULTURE
Some of the most wrenching changes triggered by deforestation were station were visited on agriculture, and these changes were not always enthusiastically received. Whereas the promoters of development looked forward to the world of the twentieth-century and saw economic opportunity and material progress in big business, others, continued to view the world from the perspective of nineteenth-century yeoman freeholders. Their values and notions of well-being were shaped by republican ideals of self-sufficiency and independence. Instead of economic opportunity they often saw moral corruption.
The railroad and timber developers encountered opposition from agrarians whose resistance grew out of Jacksonian attitudes toward monopoly and corporations. This antagonism persisted in the rural countryside throughout the nineteenth century, particularly among the and semisubsistence farmers who, according to historian J. Mills Thornton III, sought to maintain their freedom and autonomy from both the moral and economic dictates of the marketplace, as well as the speculators and business organiza-