Governing Partners: State-Local Relations in the United States

By Russell L. Hanson | Go to book overview

sionmaking. Finally, local and regional governments in the United States are not only adapting to changes in the wider policy environment, they are also becoming involved in areas of public policy in which the states and the federal government have had great difficulty in formulating solutions to public policy problems.

In the preceding discussion we have examined the role of substate governments in environmental management and identified some of the states in which they are most active in the area of environmental regulation. We have also identified some of the more important intergovernmental factors that influence state choices concerning the use of local and regional governments in the area of environmental regulation. The most important inducements have been federal legislation that encouraged local government participation in states' efforts to meet federal goals, and the political, administrative, and technical support that entities such as SEMCOG bring to bear in assisting states in solving environmental problems. Finally, we have given reasons why regional, county, and municipal governments will become even more important to state environmental management in the future. These reasons include the ability to adapt to the changing political environment; to become an important avenue of citizen access to government in policies affecting environmental quality; to coordinate a variety of policies and programs involving local service delivery; and to balance the tendency of state governments toward regulatory relief against the demands of citizens for effective environmental protection. Clearly, our understanding of environmental regulation is enhanced by the realization that this area of concern occurs within an intergovernmental context involving federal, state, regional, county, and municipal governments.


NOTES
1.
In this study, "regional government" and "regional council" refer to the same broad category of substate government organizations that provide planning services for state governments in the area of environmental protection. These regional government organizations also include the Metropolitan Planning Organization, Area Agency on Aging, Economic Development District, Local Development District, Service Delivery Area for Job Training Partnership Act programs, and Certified Development Company (see National Association of Regional Councils 1993).
2.
Haskell and Price 1973; Lester 1980; Lester et al. 1983; Duerksen 1983; Ridley 1987, 1988; Crotty 1987, 1988; and Lombard 1993.
3.
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations 1982. In 1991, 529 remained ( Atkins and Wilson-Gentry 1992).
4.
These figures from the NARC's Directory of Regional Councils in the United States, 1993 cannot include all personnel employed in California's air quality regions (please see Table 8.3).

-159-

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Governing Partners: State-Local Relations in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - The Interaction of State and Local Governments 1
  • 2 - The Intergovernmental Setting of State-Local Relations 17
  • Notes 36
  • 3 - State-Local Relations: Union and Home Rule 37
  • Notes 51
  • 4 - Emerging Trends in State-Local Relations 53
  • Notes 74
  • 5 - The Politics of State-Local Fiscal Relations 75
  • 6 - Partners for Growth: State and Local Relations in Economic Development 93
  • Notes 106
  • 7 - The State-Local Partnership in Education 109
  • Notes 137
  • 8 - Environmental Regulation and State-Local Relations 139
  • Notes 159
  • 9 - Untidy Business: Disaggregating State-Local Relations 161
  • 10 - The Politics of State Health and Welfare Reforms 177
  • Notes 198
  • References 199
  • About the Editor 213
  • About the Contributors 215
  • Index 217
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