Population Census Organization, 1981 Census Report of Sind Province
( Islamabad: Population Census Organization Printing Press, 1984), p. 104.
Adapted from GOP,
Ministry of Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan as Modified up to 19th March 1985 ( Islam-
abad: MPCPP, 1985), Article 2(a).
GOP, Report of the Basic Principles Committee ( Karachi: Government of Pakistan Press [hereinafter referred to as GOP Press], 1952), chapter 3, nos. 3-8.
GOP, Report of the Basic Principles Committee as Adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on the 21st September 1954 ( Karachi: GOP Press, 1954). A detailed account of the formation of the 1956 constitution is found in Herbert Feldman, A Constitution for Pakistan ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1956), and in Leonard Binder, Religion and Politics in Pakistan ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961).
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( 1956), Articles 25, 28, 29,
For details, see Charles H. Kennedy, "Repugnancy to Islam--Who Decides?
Islam and Legal Reform in Pakistan," International and Comparative Law Quarterly,
vol. 41, no. 4 ( October 1992), pp. 769-787; and Charles H. Kennedy, "Islamization
and Legal Reform in Pakistan, 1979-1989," Pacific Affairs, vol. 63, no. 1 (Spring 1990), pp. 62-77.
Enforcement of Shariah Act, 1991 ( Act X of 1991), PLD 1991 Central Statutes 373. For discussion, see Kennedy, "Repugnancy," pp. 60-64.
World Bank, World Tables, 1995, pp. 524-527.
Burki Shahid Javed. Pakistan: A Nation in the Making, 2d edition ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1991).
Gilmartin David. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).
Hayat Sikandar. Aspects of the Pakistan Movement (Lahore: Progressive Publishers, 1991).
Jalal Ayesha. The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League, and the Dream of Pakistan ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
Sayeed Khalid bin. Politics in Pakistan: The Nature and Direction of Change ( New
York: Praeger Publishers, 1980).
Syed Anwar Hussain. Pakistan: Islam, Politics, and National Solidarity ( New York: Praeger Publishers, 1982).
Talbot Ian. Provincial Politics and the Pakistan Movement in Northwest and Northeast
India, 1937-1947 ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1990).
Wolpert Stanley. Jinnah of Pakistan ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).
Ziring Lawrence. Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1997).