tem in place of a president-dominated system. It dealt a fatal blow to Zia's constitutional order, and it effectively restored the 1973 constitution. Figure 9.1 depicts the 1997 constitutional order.
Opposition to the changed circumstances came from two quarters--the president and the Supreme Court. During fall 1997 an elaborate test of wills between the president, the prime minister, and the chief justice of the Supreme Court ensued. When the dust settled Farooq Leghari had resigned and Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah had been replaced by Justice Ajmal Mian. Nawaz Sharif quickly moved to consolidate his power by orchestrating the election of Rafiq Ahmed Tarar as president. 5 Thus, as Pakistan approaches the millennium it has finally settled on a prime minister-dominated system. Nawaz Sharif enjoys an overwhelming majority in the National Assembly; the presidency has been reduced to a figurehead; judicial activism has been reined in; and the military has remained in the barracks.
Baxter Craig, and Charles H. Kennedy (eds.). Pakistan: 1997 ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1998).
Kennedy, Charles H., and Rasul B. Rais (eds.). Pakistan: 1995 ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1995).
Maluka Zulfikar Khalid. The Myth of Constitutionalism in Pakistan ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1995).
McGrath Allen. The Destruction of Pakistan's Democracy ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1996).
Newberg Paula. Judging the State: Courts and Constitutional Politics in Pakistan ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).