Government and Politics in South Asia

By Craig Baxter; Yogendra K. Malik et al. | Go to book overview

tem in place of a president-dominated system. It dealt a fatal blow to Zia's constitutional order, and it effectively restored the 1973 constitution. Figure 9.1 depicts the 1997 constitutional order.

Opposition to the changed circumstances came from two quarters--the president and the Supreme Court. During fall 1997 an elaborate test of wills between the president, the prime minister, and the chief justice of the Supreme Court ensued. When the dust settled Farooq Leghari had resigned and Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah had been replaced by Justice Ajmal Mian. Nawaz Sharif quickly moved to consolidate his power by orchestrating the election of Rafiq Ahmed Tarar as president. 5 Thus, as Pakistan approaches the millennium it has finally settled on a prime minister-dominated system. Nawaz Sharif enjoys an overwhelming majority in the National Assembly; the presidency has been reduced to a figurehead; judicial activism has been reined in; and the military has remained in the barracks.


Notes
1.
Act XVIII of 1985, Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1985-1986 PLD Central Statutes, p. 6.
2.
The president's dissolution was upheld by Ahmad Tariq Rahim v. Federation of Pakistan PLD 1991 Lahore 78 and Ahmad Tariq Rahim v. Federation of Pakistan PLD 1992 SC 646.
3.
Mian Nawaz Sharif v. President of Pakistan PLD SC 473.
4.
For a detailed discussion, see Charles H. Kennedy, "Presidential-Prime Ministerial Relations: The Role of the Superior Courts," in Pakistan: 1995, ed. Charles H. Kennedy and Rasul B. Rais ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 17-30.
5.
For details, consult Herald ( December 1997) and Newsline ( January 1998).

Suggested Readings

Baxter Craig, and Charles H. Kennedy (eds.). Pakistan: 1997 ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1998).

Kennedy, Charles H., and Rasul B. Rais (eds.). Pakistan: 1995 ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1995).

Maluka Zulfikar Khalid. The Myth of Constitutionalism in Pakistan ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1995).

McGrath Allen. The Destruction of Pakistan's Democracy ( Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Newberg Paula. Judging the State: Courts and Constitutional Politics in Pakistan ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

-183-

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Government and Politics in South Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Illustrations ix
  • Preface to the Fourth Edition xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 4
  • 1 - The Governance of South Asia Under the British 5
  • Suggested Readings 18
  • Part One - INDIA 19
  • 2 - Political Culture and Heritage 21
  • Suggested Readings 52
  • 3 - Political Institutions and Governmental Processes 55
  • Suggested Readings 90
  • 4 - Political Parties and Political Leaders 92
  • Suggested Readings 120
  • 5 - Groups and Multiple Demands on the System 122
  • Suggested Readings 139
  • 6 - Conflict Mediation 140
  • Suggested Readings 150
  • 7 - Modernization and Development: Prospects and Problems 151
  • Suggested Readings 159
  • Part Two - PAKISTAN 161
  • 8 - Political Culture and Heritage 163
  • Suggested Readings 174
  • 9 - Government Structure 175
  • Suggested Readings 183
  • 10 - Political Parties and Political Leaders 184
  • Suggested Readings 200
  • 11 - Conflict and Mediation 202
  • Suggested Readings 212
  • 12 - Policy Issues 213
  • Suggested Readings 223
  • 13: Modernization and Development 224
  • Part Three - BANGLADESH 231
  • 14 - Political Culture and Heritage 233
  • Suggested Readings 246
  • 15 - Government Institutions 247
  • Suggested Readings 257
  • 16 - Elections, Parties, and Interest Groups 259
  • Suggested Readings 279
  • 17 - Conflicts and Resolution 281
  • Suggested Readings 291
  • 18 - Modernization and Development: Prospects and Problems 292
  • Suggested Readings 299
  • Part Four - SRI LANKA 301
  • 19: Political Culture and Heritage 303
  • 20: Government Structure 316
  • 21: Political Parties and Interest Groups 331
  • 22: Conflict Mediation 346
  • 23: The Search for Prosperity 352
  • 24 - Modernization and Development: Prospects and Problems 358
  • Suggested Readings 362
  • Part Five - SOUTH ASIA 365
  • 25 - Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives 367
  • Suggested Readings 381
  • 26 - South Asia as a Region and in the World System 382
  • Suggested Readings 402
  • 27 - Conclusion: Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia 404
  • Suggested Readings 411
  • Statistical Appendix 413
  • Index 415
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