district councils, the electors being the members of the upazilla councils.) The upazilla is meant to be the focal point of administration and development. Below the upazilla are unions that comprise one or more villages and that also have elected councils.
Urban coordinating bodies cover entire cities. In the largest urban areas ( Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, and Rajshahi) there are municipal corporations with mayors and elected councils. Each also has a governmentappointed administrator, who is roughly the equivalent of a city manager. Smaller urban areas have city or town councils.
Police administration is headed by the inspector general of police, who serves nominally under the authority of the Home Ministry. At the district level there is a superintendent of police, and at the upazilla level, an inspector of police. Commissioners of police direct the work in major urban areas and report directly to the inspector general.
* * *
In sum, Bangladesh is developing a structure of government for the long term, as events described in the first part of this chapter confirm. The place of a freely elected parliament in the governmental system has perhaps been ensured by the success of a second free and fair election in June 1996. Although changes that may be made in the powers of the local governments are not yet known, a commitment has been made to elected bodies at lower levels and to discussion of development and other issues at those levels. It also appears that the specter of military intervention has been greatly lessened.
Ahmed Moudud. Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( Dhaka: University Press, 1983).
-----. Democracy and the Challenge of Development: A Study of Politics and Military Interventions in Bangladesh ( Dhaka: University Press, 1995).