Government and Politics in South Asia

By Craig Baxter; Yogendra K. Malik et al. | Go to book overview

23
The Search for Prosperity

AS SERIOUS AS THEY ARE, Sri Lanka's economic problems have been overshadowed by the ethnic conflict between the Tamils and Sinhalese and the second JVP insurrection. In the summer of 1984 the country entered a period of open warfare between the Tamil guerrilla fighters and the government. The Jaffna, Vavuniya, Mannar, Batticaloa, Ampara, and Trincomalee districts became a battleground, with almost daily clashes between the Tamil guerrillas and the Sinhalese soldiers, and the conflict has continued since that time.

Because of the war Sri Lanka's economic needs have been neglected by recent Sri Lankan governments. Sri Lanka remains a low-income country. Its 1995 per capita income was US$700 per year. Although this is still low, GNP per capita has been growing at a rate of 2.6 percent per year since the mid-1980s, which compares favorably with the rate of -0.7 percent per year for all other low-income countries and a rate of 0.2 percent per year for middle-income countries. 1 This strong growth has been complemented by very high measures of the quality of life. As already mentioned, life expectancy is high and infant mortality, at 16 deaths per 1,000 births, is low. 2 This standard of living is also aided by very high standards of education.

The search for economic development has been a difficult one for Sri Lanka. The high standards of living were obtained by a series of programs begun by S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike in the 1950s that provided every Sri Lankan with a minimal measure of food and free health care. These programs were expensive and ultimately were discarded in favor of programs aimed at increasing the productive capacity of the population rather than improving the quality of life of the citizens.

The conflict that Sri Lanka has faced since the 1970s is closely tied to the economic problems the country is facing. The alienation and anger of the Tamil youths is fostered by the economic stagnation of the Tamil areas, and the JVP insurrections of 1971 and 1987-1990 reflect the discontent of the Sinhalese youths. Both insurrections relied on the large number of educated and unemployed youths who were produced by the Sri Lankan

-352-

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Government and Politics in South Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Illustrations ix
  • Preface to the Fourth Edition xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 4
  • 1 - The Governance of South Asia Under the British 5
  • Suggested Readings 18
  • Part One - INDIA 19
  • 2 - Political Culture and Heritage 21
  • Suggested Readings 52
  • 3 - Political Institutions and Governmental Processes 55
  • Suggested Readings 90
  • 4 - Political Parties and Political Leaders 92
  • Suggested Readings 120
  • 5 - Groups and Multiple Demands on the System 122
  • Suggested Readings 139
  • 6 - Conflict Mediation 140
  • Suggested Readings 150
  • 7 - Modernization and Development: Prospects and Problems 151
  • Suggested Readings 159
  • Part Two - PAKISTAN 161
  • 8 - Political Culture and Heritage 163
  • Suggested Readings 174
  • 9 - Government Structure 175
  • Suggested Readings 183
  • 10 - Political Parties and Political Leaders 184
  • Suggested Readings 200
  • 11 - Conflict and Mediation 202
  • Suggested Readings 212
  • 12 - Policy Issues 213
  • Suggested Readings 223
  • 13: Modernization and Development 224
  • Part Three - BANGLADESH 231
  • 14 - Political Culture and Heritage 233
  • Suggested Readings 246
  • 15 - Government Institutions 247
  • Suggested Readings 257
  • 16 - Elections, Parties, and Interest Groups 259
  • Suggested Readings 279
  • 17 - Conflicts and Resolution 281
  • Suggested Readings 291
  • 18 - Modernization and Development: Prospects and Problems 292
  • Suggested Readings 299
  • Part Four - SRI LANKA 301
  • 19: Political Culture and Heritage 303
  • 20: Government Structure 316
  • 21: Political Parties and Interest Groups 331
  • 22: Conflict Mediation 346
  • 23: The Search for Prosperity 352
  • 24 - Modernization and Development: Prospects and Problems 358
  • Suggested Readings 362
  • Part Five - SOUTH ASIA 365
  • 25 - Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives 367
  • Suggested Readings 381
  • 26 - South Asia as a Region and in the World System 382
  • Suggested Readings 402
  • 27 - Conclusion: Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia 404
  • Suggested Readings 411
  • Statistical Appendix 413
  • Index 415
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