Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary

By Benjamin F. Shearer; Barbara S. Shearer | Go to book overview

dinary professor" in 1926 at the age of 48, Germany's first woman professor of physics.

Lise developed a close circle of friends, mostly physicists. Music played an important role in her friendships. The Institut had a choir. Lise and her friends met for regular musical evenings. Einstein played his violin and Meitner taught her friends Brahms songs. In the laboratory, Lise's research focused on clarifying the relationships between the beta spectra and gamma rays emitted by radioactive material. She was at the height of her career. Each year she was among the people discussed for a Nobel Prize.

By the early 1930s nuclear physics had advanced dramatically, and Meitner was fascinated by the emerging information. After twelve years apart, she asked Hahn to team up with her again. She needed an expert radiochemist to identify the new heavy isotopes. To help identify their minute samples, Hahn brought in Fritz Strassmann, an analytical chemist. Two other women completed the group: an American chemist, Dr. Clara Leiber, and their technician, a German, Irmgard Bohne. Meitner was the intellectual leader of the team.

At this time, however, Meitner was forced to interrupt her research and leave Germany. Nazi racial laws were making it increasingly difficult for her to work. At first, Meitner was safe because as an Austrian she was not subject to Germany's anti-Semitic laws and the Kaiser- Wilhelm Institut was controlled by powerful industrialists who were able to protect her. However, Meitner's situation became critical following the invasion of Austria. She was banned from teaching, attending conferences, and publishing her research. When Hahn gave a talk outside the Institut on his work with Meitner, he could not mention her name. Her reputation was being obliterated. In 1938, Dirk Coster at the University of Groningen arranged for Meitner to enter Holland despite her lack of papers. She took a train there on the pretext that she was going on a week's vacation. She left behind all her belongings and her scientific papers.

Meitner remained in Holland for a short time and then went to Denmark, where she was the guest of Niels Bohr. She subsequently accepted an invitation from Manne Siegbahn to work in the new Nobel Institute in Stockholm. Meitner was 60 years old when she went to Sweden. Nevertheless, she acquired a good command of the language and built up a small research group. Her thoughts on her career never changed: "Life need not be easy, provided only that it is not empty." 1

Meitner made her most famous contribution to science shortly after arriving in Stockholm. Mail between Stockholm and Berlin could be delivered overnight, so Hahn and Meitner continued their collaboration. They corresponded several times a week and once met secretly in Copenhagen. Hahn and Strassmann turned to her when they found that

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Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction ix
  • Ida Barney (1886-1982) Astronomer 1
  • Bibliography 3
  • Bibliography 4
  • Bibliography 8
  • Bibliography 8
  • Jocelyn Bell Burnell (1943- ) Astronomer 9
  • Bibliography 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • Bibliography 17
  • Bibliography 18
  • Bibliography 18
  • Bibliography 20
  • Bibliography 20
  • Bibliography 20
  • Bibliography 25
  • Bibliography 26
  • Bibliography 27
  • Bibliography 31
  • Bibliography 31
  • Bibliography 32
  • Bibliography 35
  • Bibliography 35
  • Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941) Astronomer 36
  • Bibliography 40
  • Emma Perry Carr (1880-1972) Chemist 40
  • EMMA PERRY CARR (1880-1972) Chemist 45
  • EMMA PERRY CARR (1880-1972) Chemist 45
  • Marjorie Caserio (1929- ) Chemist 46
  • Bibliography 50
  • Bibliography 51
  • Bibliography 56
  • Bibliography 56
  • Bibliography 57
  • Bibliography 61
  • Bibliography 61
  • Bibliography 62
  • Bibliography 66
  • Bibliography 66
  • Ingrid Daubechies (1954- ) Physicist 67
  • Bibliography 69
  • Allie Vibert Douglas (1894-1988) Astrophysicist, Astronomer 69
  • ALLIE VIBERT DOUGLAS (1894-1988) Astrophysicist, Astronomer 75
  • ALLIE VIBERT DOUGLAS (1894-1988) Astrophysicist, Astronomer 76
  • Allie Vibert Douglas (1894-1988) Astrophysicist, Astronomer 76
  • ALLIE VIBERT DOUGLAS (1894-1988) Astrophysicist, Astronomer 79
  • ALLIE VIBERT DOUGLAS (1894-1988) Astrophysicist, Astronomer 79
  • Helen T. Edwards (1936- ) Physicist 80
  • Bibliography 84
  • Gertrude Belle Elion (1918- ) Biochemist 84
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 87
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 88
  • Gertrude Belle Elion (1918- ) Biochemist 88
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 93
  • Bibliography 94
  • Gertrude Belle Elion (1918- ) Biochemist 94
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 99
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 99
  • Gertrude Belle Elion (1918- ) Biochemist 99
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 104
  • GERTRUDE BELLE ELION (1918- ) Biochemist 104
  • Williamina Paton Fleming (1857-1911) Astronomer 105
  • Bibliography 109
  • Helen M. Free (1923--) Chemist 110
  • Bibliography 112
  • Wendy Laurel Freedman (1957- ) Astronomer 113
  • Bibliography 117
  • Catharine D. Garmany (1946- ) Astronomer 117
  • CATHARINE D. GARMANY (1946- ) Astronomer 121
  • CATHARINE D. GARMANY (1946- ) Astronomer 121
  • Margaret Joan Geller (1947- ) Astronomer 122
  • Bibliography 126
  • Ellen Gleditsch (1879-1968) Nuclear Chemist 127
  • Bibliography 131
  • Jenny Pickworth Glusker (1931- ) Crystallographer, Cancer Researcher 132
  • Notes 135
  • Bibliography 136
  • Bibliography 136
  • Bibliography 143
  • Bibliography 144
  • Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber (1911- ) Physicist 145
  • Bibliography 147
  • Bibliography 148
  • Bibliography 153
  • Bibliography 153
  • Jeanette Grasselli (brown) (1929- ) Analytical Chemist 154
  • Notes 158
  • Bibliography 158
  • Arda Alden Green (1899-1958) Biochemist 159
  • Notes 162
  • Bibliography 162
  • Dorothy Anna Hahn (1876-1950) Chemist 163
  • Bibliography 166
  • Heidi Hammel (1960- ) Astronomer 166
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 171
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 171
  • Heidi Hammel (1960- ) Astronomer 172
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 175
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 176
  • Heidi Hammel (1960- ) Astronomer 176
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 177
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 177
  • Heidi Hammel (1960- ) Astronomer 178
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 180
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 181
  • Heidi Hammel (1960- ) Astronomer 181
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 185
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 185
  • Heidi Hammel (1960- ) Astronomer 186
  • HEIDI HAMMEL (1960- ) Astronomer 190
  • Bibliography 191
  • Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905-1993) Astronomer 191
  • HELEN SAWYER HOGG (1905-1993) Astronomer 196
  • Icie Gertrude Macy Hoobler (1892-1984) Biochemist 197
  • Bibliography 202
  • Allene Rosalind Jeanes (1906-1995) Chemist 203
  • Bibliography 207
  • Bibliography 208
  • Bibliography 212
  • Bibliography 212
  • Bibliography 212
  • Bibliography 217
  • Bibliography 217
  • Bibliography 217
  • Bibliography 221
  • Bibliography 222
  • Joyce Jacobson Kaufman (1929- ) Chemist 223
  • Bibliography 227
  • Vera E. Kistiakowsky (1928- ) Physicist 228
  • Bibliography 233
  • Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) Astronomer 233
  • HENRIETTA SWAN LEAVITT (1868-1921) Astronomer 236
  • HENRIETTA SWAN LEAVITT (1868-1921) Astronomer 236
  • Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) Astronomer 237
  • HENRIETTA SWAN LEAVITT (1868-1921) Astronomer 241
  • Bibliography 242
  • Pauline Beery Mack (1891-1974) Chemist 242
  • PAULINE BEERY MACK (1891-1974) Chemist 246
  • PAULINE BEERY MACK (1891-1974) Chemist 247
  • Pauline Beery Mack (1891-1974) Chemist 247
  • PAULINE BEERY MACK (1891-1974) Chemist 250
  • PAULINE BEERY MACK (1891-1974) Chemist 250
  • Ines Mandl (1917- ) Biochemist 251
  • Bibliography 254
  • Antonia Maury (1866-1952) Astronomer 255
  • Bibliography 259
  • Grace Medes (1886-1967) Chemist 259
  • GRACE MEDES (1886-1967) Chemist 262
  • Bibliography 263
  • Lise Meitner (1878-1968) Physicist 263
  • LISE MEITNER (1878-1968) Physicist 266
  • LISE MEITNER (1878-1968) Physicist 267
  • Lise Meitner (1878-1968) Physicist 268
  • LISE MEITNER (1878-1968) Physicist 270
  • LISE MEITNER (1878-1968) Physicist 270
  • Lise Meitner (1878-1968) Physicist 270
  • LISE MEITNER (1878-1968) Physicist 274
  • LISE MEITNER (1878-1968) Physicist 275
  • Agnes Fay Morgan (1884-1968) Chemist 276
  • Notes 280
  • Bibliography 281
  • Dorothy Virginia Nightingale (1902- ) Chemist 282
  • Notes 285
  • Bibliography 286
  • Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900-1979) Astronomer 286
  • CECILIA PAYNE-GAPOSCHKIN (1900-1979) Astronomer 291
  • CECILIA PAYNE-GAPOSCHKIN (1900-1979) Astronomer 291
  • Mary Engle Pennington (1872-1952) Bacteriologist, Chemist 292
  • Bibliography 296
  • Bibliography 297
  • Bibliography 301
  • Bibliography 301
  • Bibliography 301
  • Bibliography 304
  • Bibliography 305
  • Bibliography 310
  • Bibliography 310
  • Lucy Weston Pickett (1904- ) Chemist 311
  • Bibliography 314
  • Bibliography 315
  • Bibliography 318
  • Bibliography 318
  • Kamal J. Ranadive (1917- ) Cancer Researcher 319
  • Bibliography 322
  • Sarah Ratner (1903- ) Biochemist 323
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 327
  • Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 327
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 332
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 332
  • Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 333
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 336
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 336
  • Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 336
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 341
  • ELLEN SWALLOW RICHARDS (1842-1911) Chemist, Ecologist, Home Economist 342
  • Elizabeth Roemer (1929- ) Astronomer 343
  • Bibliography 345
  • Nancy Grace Roman (1925- ) Astronomer 345
  • NANCY GRACE ROMAN (1925- ) Astronomer 349
  • Vera Cooper Rubin (1928- ) Astronomer 350
  • Bibliography 354
  • Bibliography 355
  • Bibliography 358
  • Bibliography 359
  • Bibliography 359
  • Bibliography 363
  • Bibliography 363
  • Bibliography 363
  • Bibliography 366
  • Bibliography 367
  • Bibliography 367
  • Bibliography 372
  • Bibliography 372
  • Bibliography 373
  • Bibliography 375
  • Bibliography 375
  • Bibliography 375
  • Bibliography 380
  • Bibliography 380
  • Bibliography 381
  • Bibliography 384
  • Bibliography 385
  • Bibliography 385
  • Bibliography 388
  • Bibliography 388
  • Henrietta Hill Swope (1902-1980) Astronomer 389
  • Bibliography 391
  • Paula Szkody (1948- ) Astronomer 392
  • Beatrice Muriel Hill Tinsley (1941-1981) Astronomer 396
  • BEATRICE MURIEL HILL TINSLEY (1941-1981) Astronomer 400
  • BEATRICE MURIEL HILL TINSLEY (1941-1981) Astronomer 400
  • Marjorie Jean Young Vold (1913-1991) Colloid Chemist 401
  • Bibliography 404
  • Emma T.R. Williams Vyssotsky (1894-1975) Astronomer 405
  • Bibliography 408
  • Bibliography 409
  • Bibliography 413
  • Bibliography 413
  • Sarah Frances Whiting (1847-1927) Astronomer, Physicist 414
  • Bibliography 418
  • Lee Anne M. Willson (1947- ) Astronomer 418
  • LEE ANNE M. WILLSON (1947- ) Astronomer 422
  • LEE ANNE M. WILLSON (1947- ) Astronomer 422
  • Lee Anne M. Willson (1947- ) Astronomer 423
  • LEE ANNE M. WILLSON (1947- ) Astronomer 428
  • LEE ANNE M. WILLSON (1947- ) Astronomer 429
  • Lee Anne M. Willson (1947- ) Astronomer 429
  • LEE ANNE M. WILLSON (1947- ) Astronomer 433
  • Xide Xie (1921- ) Physicist 434
  • Bibliography 438
  • Judith Sharn Young (1952- ) Astronomer 438
  • JUDITH SHARN YOUNG (1952- ) Astronomer 442
  • JUDITH SHARN YOUNG (1952- ) Astronomer 442
  • Appendix I: Scientists by Profession 445
  • Appendix II: Scientists by Honors and Awards Received 449
  • Index 461
  • About the Editors and Contributors 471
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