rations' struggle for a patent to market Indian Neem leaves as natural pesticides, quotes Vandana Shiva's words: "The West does not see technologies that are developed by non-Western cultures and indigenous communities as technologies evolved by human societies, but as part of nature."8 Shiva, as India's delegate to the 1992 International Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, gave the message to the attendees about the interrelation of development, ecology, gender, race, and class at the global level.
Shiva's strong criticism of environmental degradation issues was clear in her presentation at a 1992 Chicago meeting:
Environmentalists of the North need to learn that the poor of the world should not be made scapegoats for ecological degradation. It is not the South's overpopulation that is taxing the Earth's resources, so much as the World Bank development policies and the unwillingness of governments of the North to make corporations accountable for the environmental damage they do. Are we going to move into an era of environmental apartheid, where the North becomes clean and stays rich while the South stays poor and becomes the toxic dump of the world? 9
Shiva has contributed to environmental protection, ecology, feminism, and the Chipko movement through numerous books, articles, and presentations at national and international conferences. She continues to be an active voice for the conservation of biodiversity, offering intelligent criticism of the hegemony of male-dominated, rich, northern hemisphere corporations and societies, a criticism based on a fundamental belief in nature itself.