The Assessment of Object Relations Phenomena in Adolescents: Tat and Rorschach Measures

By Francis D. Kelly | Go to book overview

7
Pathways of Trauma: The Impact of Chronic, Complex Abuse and Neglect Experiences on Object Representations and Relatedness

Clinicians who assess and treat adolescents are increasingly informed by a burgeoning literature that attests to the link between present psychopathology and either current or earlier experiences of abuse or trauma. As a result of research efforts, largely since the mid-1980s, it is now possible to observe the multiple effects and pathways of different types of trauma and abusive experiences on a child's or adolescent's short-term adaptation in emotional, behavioral, cognitive and interpersonal areas ( Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Conte & Schuerman, 1988; Eth & Pynoss, 1985; Friedrich, 1988; Friedrich, Urquiza, & Beilke, 1986; Gomes-Schwartz, Horowitz, & Sauzier, 1985; Krystal, 1978; Mannarino & Cohen, 1986; Monane, Leichter, Otnow Lewis, 1984; Terr, 1991).

It is also increasingly possible to witness how children and adolescents assimilate and integrate abuse and trauma experiences over time, and how these impact on long-term functioning and adaptation ( Bagley & Ramsey, 1985; Briere & Runtz, 1988; Cicchetti & Beeghly, 1987; Herman, Perry & van der Kolk, 1989; Terr, 1991; Watkins & Bentovim, 1992; Westen, Ludolph, Block, et al., 1990). As van der Kolk and Fisler ( 1994) observed, the frequent sequelae of abusive and significantly neglectful experiences usually results in adaptational efforts reflecting a chronic inability to integrate and modulate emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses. These subsequently give rise to an array of behaviors designed to regulate internal affective states and impulses. Self-destructive patterns of behavior, eating disorders, dissociative episodes, substance abuse, and increased aggression against others serve to define the clinical presentations in many adolescents seen for consultation.

-133-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Assessment of Object Relations Phenomena in Adolescents: Tat and Rorschach Measures
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 212

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.