METHOD OF STUDY
THE NOVEL ORIENTATION of this study, its background in the cross-cultural survey method of anthropology, its focus on cross- historical correlations, and its aim of discerning laws of history through causal analysis of these correlations have all been set forth at considerable length in the Preface. In this chapter we shall spell out the details of our procedures. These were planned nearly ten years ago and were nearly all carried out from 1962 to 1964. Hence we do not always do as we advise in the Preface. Thirty years ago, one of us was a young army recruit. His sergeant told him and his fellow recruits, "Don't do like I do. Do like I say do." In this spirit, if discrepancies arise between our practice and our preaching, we request our readers similarly not to do as we do, but to do as we say to do.
Our concept of the higher civilization, or paideia, is defined in the Preface, in terms of its dominant body of literature. In each paideia, the particular periods of time were chosen, as is described under "Sampling Methods" (pp. 28-30 below). In each such paideia, for each century chosen, two states were selected for attention, a Conspicuous State and its Conspicuous Rival. The Conspicuous State was thought of as the state whose diplomatic or military rivalries with other states had attracted the most attention among modern historians. Its Conspicuous Rival was thought of as that state most often the military or diplomatic rival of the Conspicuous State. Appendix A presents a detailed content