Military Deterrence in History: A Pilot Cross-Historical Survey

By Raoul Naroll; Vern L. Bullough et al. | Go to book overview

GLOSSARY
Alignments.See Galton's Problem.
Allograph. In a given script, the variant forms of a single grapheme are called allographs. For example, in the Latin alphabet, A, a, a, and a are four allographs of a single grapheme. While each grapheme differs in meaning from every other, allographs of a single grapheme all have the same meaning.
Bias.See sampling bias, coding bias, reporting bias.
Coding Bias. Any consistent circumstance or factor which makes coders who are classifying historical reports for comparative purposes err in a consistent manner or in a consistent direction. Contrasts with random error.
Combing Problems. See Group significance.
Conspicuous Rival, cf. Conspicuous State. The Conspicuous Rival is defined as the rival state whose rivalry with the Conspicuous State is given the most attention in Langer's Encyclopedia of World History.
Conspicuous State. That state whose conflicts with other states are given the most attention during a given decade in a given civilization (Paideia) in Langer's Encylopedia of World History.
Contingency Tables.See Fourfold contingency tables.
Correlation. A correlation exists between two variables if a knowledge of one permits prediction of the value of the other with a greater likelihood of success than would be expected from chance alone.
Cross-Cultural Survey. A worldwide study of a sample of all human societies (mostly primitive societies), seeking to test hypotheses about functional relationships between variables by means of correlations.
Cross-Historical Survey. A study of a sample of given historical periods representative of all such periods in societies with written historical records sufficiently detailed to permit study. The study seeks to test hypotheses about functional relationships between variables by means of correlations.
Cross-Lagged Correlation. A correlation in which two successive observations of the same variables are made on each subject (historical period) at successive time intervals. The purpose of the cross-lagged correlation is to see whether

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