Wang Ruoshui's essay, from which the epigraph and the passage quoted on p. xx are taken, appeared first in the People's Daily in March 1983. It was written in honor of Karl Marx's death centenary. According to my information, it was published despite government prohibition, mainly because the order forbidding the publication arrived too late to stop the print. For this, he was removed from his office as deputy editor-inchief. The essay was later published together with other writings under the title Wei rendaozhuyi bianhu ( In defense of humanism) ( Beijing: Renmin, 1987), which is the edition I consulted. Wang was expelled from the party in 1988.
A Note on Sources: The event of April-June 1989 in Beijing has been well documented all over the world in print and picture. Besides the books, newspapers, and newsmagazines referred to at the end of my Chronology of Events and following the introduction, and in the notes to this chapter, I have also synthesized the information from Chinese-language sources, including several books since published on this subject, one of which is Han Shanbi, ed., Lishi de changshang ( The wound of history) ( Hong Kong: East & West Culture, 1989), vol. 1. For the account in this chapter, the following Chinese-language daily newspapers have been especially useful: Ming Pao Daily, Shun Po, Sing Tao Daily, Wen Hui Daily, all from Hong Kong; China Times Daily, China Times Express, United Daily, all from Taiwan. For the story of the student demonstrations and the crackdown, I have also consulted articles from the following newsmagazines: Asiaweek (English and Chinese editions), Cheng Ming, Hong Kong Economic Journal Monthly (Shun Bao Monthly) (especially the June 1989 issue), Ming Pao Monthly (especially the May and June issues, 1989), The Nineties, Pai Hsing Semi- Monthly (especially May 16, 1989), Tide Monthly, all from Hong Kong; and China Spring 73 ( June 1989), from New York.
Besides the news reports mentioned in the text, English-language sources include these recent works by eyewitnesses: Beijing Spring, photographs by David and Peter Turnley, text by Melinda Liu ( New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1989); Crisis at Tiananmen, by Yi Mu ( San Francisco: China Books & Periodicals, 1989); June Four: A Chronicle of the Chinese Democratic Uprising, by the photographers and reporters of Ming Pao News, translated by Zi Jin and Qin Zhou ( Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1989); Massacre in Beijing, by the editors of Time Magazine, with an introduction by Nien Cheng ( New York: Warner Books, 1989); Tiananmen Diary: Thirteen Days in June, by Harrison E. Salisbury ( Boston: Little Brown, 1989); Tiananmen: Rape of Beijing by Michael Fathers ( New York: Doubleday/Anchor, 1989); Tiananmen Square, by Scot Simmie and Bob Nixon ( Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1989).
There are also the printed transcript from ABC News, The Koppel Report: Tragedy at Tiananmen: the Untold Story ( June 27, 1989); and Nicholas D. Kristoff's