EDUCATION FOR BLACKS: BOOKER T. WASHINGTON AND W. E. B. DUBOIS
With the conclusion of the Civil War, the issue of education for blacks became a national question. Since the former slaves were now citizens, and many of them, of all ages, thirsted for instruction, it was natural to shape and implement educational enterprises in their behalf. Both governmental and private agencies involved themselves. The Freedmen's Bureau of the War Department put up school buildings in Southern states immediately after the war. Church and secular charitable societies, mainly organized and funded in the North, enlisted teachers and supplied them to Southern schools. During the Radical Reconstruction period of the late 1860s, some Southern states opened their public schools to black youngsters, and Congress in later years seriously considered, although never launched, a federally financed national campaign to abolish illiteracy, which existed mainly among black and immigrant children.
Although some of these undertakings were either temporary or stillborn, permanent results were achieved. Notable was the establishment of several institutions of higher learning for black youth. Some of these, such as Fisk University in Nashville and Howard University, in Washington, D.C., were modeled on the antebellum American college. Hampton Institute in Virginia, and Tnskegee Institute in Alabama, however, broke new ground by initiating programs that combined traditional collegiate instruction with voca-