The net flows to the Soviet Union and Russia were substantially less than the gross flows, because of substantial amortizations during this period. For the Soviet Union as a whole, the IMF records total amortizations of $16.3 billion for 1990 and 1991, with Russia's share amounting to $9.9 billion. Thus, according to IMF data, net flows for 1990 and 1991 were $9.7 billion for the Soviet Union and $5.7 billion for Russia. Subtracting the interest payments on the foreign debt shows that net resource transfers to the Soviet Union and to Russia from foreign creditors were de minimis: $0.6 billion and $0.1 billion, respectively. The calculations for Russia are shown in Table A2.