The bottleneck is at the top of the bottle.
AN OLD SAYING
Every organization has work to do in the real world and some way of measuring how well that work is done. The responsibility of a manager is to see that the work gets done as efficiently and effectively as possible, whether it consists of producing goods, winning games, teaching pupils, preventing crimes, defending a frontier, making scientific discoveries, staging an entertainment, or any of the myriad other tasks that organizations undertake. The devices that measure efficiency and effectiveness are as diverse as the tasks themselves, but are inescapable from the manager's standpoint; he must ordinarily accept the conventional yardsticks, whatever they are. If the organization is a retail store, he cannot decide to disregard profitability; if it is a professional baseball team, he cannot replace the number of games won and lost with some other measure of performance more to his liking. He can, and often will, introduce additional measures of performance to move the organizational program in one direction or another, but these are not