How to Run Any Organization

By Theodore Caplow | Go to book overview

3: Productivity

The bottleneck is at the top of the bottle.

AN OLD SAYING


Efficiency and effectiveness

Every organization has work to do in the real world and some way of measuring how well that work is done. The responsibility of a manager is to see that the work gets done as efficiently and effectively as possible, whether it consists of producing goods, winning games, teaching pupils, preventing crimes, defending a frontier, making scientific discoveries, staging an entertainment, or any of the myriad other tasks that organizations undertake. The devices that measure efficiency and effectiveness are as diverse as the tasks themselves, but are inescapable from the manager's standpoint; he must ordinarily accept the conventional yardsticks, whatever they are. If the organization is a retail store, he cannot decide to disregard profitability; if it is a professional baseball team, he cannot replace the number of games won and lost with some other measure of performance more to his liking. He can, and often will, introduce additional measures of performance to move the organizational program in one direction or another, but these are not

-90-

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How to Run Any Organization
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Introduction 1
  • 1: Authority 9
  • 2: Communication 49
  • 3: Productivity 90
  • 4: Morale 128
  • 5: Change 176
  • Notes 209
  • Reading list on the art of management 215
  • Index 217
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