Power and Principle: Armed Intervention in Wilsonian Foreign Policy

By Frederick S. Calhoun | Go to book overview

7. THE LIMITS of FORCE:

Russia, Bolshevism, and the Paris Peace Conference

World War I interrupted the domestic reforms of the Progressive movement by diverting attention to the defeat of German militarism. The American people accepted the new challenge eagerly, with high hopes for building a better world. United among themselves and with the other democracies, they expected to change the international system as they had reformed American government and society. Opposition to the war on the home front was not allowed, and objectors were silenced harshly. But the emphasis on unity and sacrifice spawned during the war did not survive long beyond the Armistice in November 1918. The brutal suppression of dissent unleashed all the doubts and uncertainties about the dramatic transformations wrought by Progressives. After two decades and more of agitation and reform, culminating in the brief experiment in restructuring the international system, the people of the United States retreated into more selfish pursuits. The great campaign to save the world for democracy ended in the belief that democracy could be preserved only at home, and interest in the salvation of Europe dwindled quickly. American troops returned from the front to devote themselves to personal business, not public crusades. They had found the limits of reform.

Bolshevism's infection of Russia, and the fear of its spread into Europe and across the Atlantic to the United States, encouraged this growing distrust of social and political change. The Red Scare of 1919-20, with its elements of xenophobia and resurgent conservatism, expressed the gnawing anxiety that the United States should avoid further contamination with European problems. As Arno Mayer has shown, this reactionary trend was not confined to America. Across Europe, the forces of movement confronted head-on the forces of order.1 The ulti-

-219-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Power and Principle: Armed Intervention in Wilsonian Foreign Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 342

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.