Although the United States has always portrayed itself as a sanctuary for the world's victims of poverty and oppression, anti-immigrant movements have enjoyed remarkable success throughout American history. None attained greater prominence than the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, a fraternal order referred to most commonly as the Know Nothing party. Vowing to reduce the political influence of immigrants and Catholics, the Know Nothings burst onto the American political scene in 1854, and by the end of the following year they had elected eight governors, more than one' hundred congressmen, the mayors of Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago, and thousands of other local officials. Prominent politicians of every persuasion joined the new party. Radicals such as Thaddeus Stevens, conservatives like former President Millard Fillmore, and notorious politicos including Simon Cameron all took the Know Nothing oath. After their initial successes, the Know Nothings attempted to increase their appeal by converting their network of lodges into a conventional political organization, which they christened the "American party."
Contemporaries were amazed that an organization with a ridiculous name and a proscriptive platform could attain such popularity, and they debated the causes of the Know Nothings' rise with great fervor. Yet until relatively recently, historians devoted little energy to the study of the Know Nothing party. Such neglect was somewhat understandable, because scholars who examined "the middle period" tended to focus on the causes and consequences of the Civil War. The Know Nothings seemed to have little impact on the sectional crisis, so students of antebellum America tended to mention the Know Nothings only in passing, if at all. Consequently, the Know Nothings became largely the province of county historical societies, whose members often presented papers that chronicled the local history of the mysterious order1.____________________