Contexts for Learning: Sociocultural Dynamics in Children's Development

By Ellice A. Forman; Norris Minick et al. | Go to book overview

6
What Is Missing in the Metaphor of Scaffolding?

C. ADDISON STONE


The Scaffolding Metaphor

In 1976, Wood, Bruner, and Ross ( 1976) introduced the term scaffolding in the context of an analysis of adult-child interaction. They used the term as a metaphor for the process by which an adult assists a child to carry out a task beyond the child's capability as an individual agent. They described scaffolding as consisting of the adult's " 'controlling' those elements of the task that are initially beyond the learner's capacity, thus permitting him to concentrate upon and complete only those elements that are within his range of competence." They argued, furthermore, that "the process can potentially achieve much more for the learner than an assisted completion of the task," and that it could result in "development of task competence by the learner at a pace that would far outstrip his unassisted efforts."

Wood and associates ( 1976) offered an analysis of the critical features of the scaffolding provided by the adult during an interactive problem-solving session. They noted first that the adult works with implicit theories of the task components, the necessary steps to solution, and the child's capabilities. The support provided by the adult was seen as serving several key functions: recruitment of the child's interest, reduction in degrees of freedom, maintaining goal orientation, highlighting critical task features, controlling frustration, and demonstrating idealized solution paths. In effective instances of scaffolding, they argued, the end result is greater individual mastery of the target task. The mechanism assumed to lead to this success was summarized in a companion paper by Wood and Middleton ( 1975, p. 190).

The instruction serves to mark or highlight . . . task appropriate actions, providing [the child] with feedback which, though consistent with his actions, might not be inferred by him alone in the face of the many other competitors for relevance and attention which confront him. As he enacts and perfects such isolated task constituents, uncertainty about what to do and what to anticipate as a consequence of his actions diminishes, at least with regard to a subset of the task. This further frees the child to consider the wider or related task constraints and operations. At best, this process continues until he becomes acquainted with and skilled in all aspects of task activity to the point where he can initiate and control his own behaviour in the absence of an instructor.

-169-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Contexts for Learning: Sociocultural Dynamics in Children's Development
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 395

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.