Contexts for Learning: Sociocultural Dynamics in Children's Development

By Ellice A. Forman; Norris Minick et al. | Go to book overview
by Marx, in which conflict and contradiction are canceled out and overcome (aufhebung), always in a positive and progressive direction. The negation of negation in the dialectical process, however, ignores the fact that there are different kinds of negation ( Pea, 1980; Wilden, 1984).
3
Identification has also been used in its general sense as the process in classification or categorization (x' is recognized as a member of the X class) or as in mathematics (x = x), for example, in Freud's ( 1900) discussion of dreams. Psychoanalysis also uses the term "internalization" to describe other-functions and relationships from which structures of the self and ego are constituted, e.g., Kohut's ( 1971) "transmuting internalizations." [For reviews on identification in psychoanalysis see Etchegoyen ( 1985) and Kanzer ( 1985).]
4
Kaye ( 1982, p. 237) quoted Delgado: "We cannot be free from parents, teachers, and society because they are the extracerebral sources of our minds".
5
One encounters here the same positivist emphasis as in discussions of language functions or pragmatics. Following Austin ( 1962), developmentalists have addressed learning what one can do by means of language, neglecting how that process creates who one can be through speech.
6
Certainly, issues of power and control are at work here but not in any simplistic sense. ( Henriques et al., 1984; Verdonik, Flapan, Schmit, & Weinstock 1988).
7
The anlagen of turn-taking in reciprocal games such as peek-a-boo are obvious ( Bruner, 1983). Here I wish to stress that step beyond, which is responsibility.

References

Austin J. ( 1962). How to do things with words. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bakhtin M. ( 1973). Problems of Dostoevsky's poetics. Ann Arbor MI: Ardis.

Bakhtin M. ( 1981). The dialogic imagination: four essays by M. M. Bakhtin ( M. Holquist , ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bruner J. ( 1978). The role of dialogue in language acquisition. In A. Sinclair, R. J. Jarvella , & W. J. M. Levelt (eds.). The child's conception of language (pp. 241- 56). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Bruner J. ( 1983). Child's talk: learning to use language. New York: Norton.

Erikson E. ( 1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.

Etchegoyen R. ( 1985). Identification and its vicissitudes. International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 66 ( 1), 3-18.

Freud S. ( 1900). The interpretation of dreams (Standard Edition 4 & 5). London: Hogarth Press.

Freud S. ( 1917). Mourning and melancholia (Standard Edition 14, p. 239). London: Hogarth Press.

Freud S. ( 1923). The ego and the id (Standard Edition 19, p. 3). London: Hogarth Press.

Goodnow J. ( 1990). The socialization of cognition: what's involved? In J. W. Stigler, R. A. Shweder, & G. H. Herdt (eds.). Cultural psychology: essays on comparative human development (pp. 259-286). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Henriques J., Hollway W., Urwin C., Venn C., & Walkerdine V. ( 1984). Changing the subject: psychology, social regulation and subjectivity. New York: Methuen.

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