results from the process-dissociation procedure in recognition memory (which assumes independence of familiarity and recollection) are currently difficult to interpret owing to methodological differences between the two procedures. For the moment, the two approaches are better regarded as complementary rather than reducible.

The framework we have put forward in this chapter suggests that the relationships among task performance, memorial states of awareness, retrieval strategies, retrieval processes, and memory representations are much more complex than is acknowledged by any other current theoretical scheme or framework. Such complexities are the inevitable consequence of the reintroduction of the concepts of consciousness and volition into accounts of memory. In our view, the most productive approach to unravelling these complexities is to place a firm emphasis on experimental data, together with careful theoretical analysis and use of terminology. Simple quantitative data-analytic models may appear to overcome current difficulties, but can lead to serious oversimplification, to the introduction of assumptions that may be extremely difficult to verify, and to misleading conclusions. The use of such models does not, in the end, exempt us from ensuring that our measurement tools -- that is, our memory tasks -- accurately reflect the phenomena that we are attempting to measure.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to Eyal Reingold, Roddy Roediger, Jeffrey Toth, and Endel Tulving for constructive comments on the initial version of this chapter, which was prepared while the first author was a Visiting Research Fellow at City University and the third author was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Open University. We also thank Peter Ayton, James Hampton, and the other members of the Memory and Cognition Research Group at City University for useful discussions of the issues addressed here.


REFERENCES

Allen S. W. and Jacoby L. L. ( 1990). "Reinstating study context produces unconscious influences of memory". Memory and Cognition, 18, 270-8.

Anderson J. R. ( 1983). The architecture of cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Anderson J. R. and Bower G. H. ( 1972). "Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall". Psychological Review, 79, 97-123.

Bjork R. A. ( 1972). "Theoretical implications of directed forgetting". In Codingprocesses in human memory,

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