implicit and explicit processes to performance on a single task, for example by applying Jacoby's ( 1991) process-dissociation technique. Experiments in progress by Dienes and colleagues and in our own laboratory are currently doing this.

Finally, to return to the question of how implicit is implicit learning, the answer really depends on the criteria used to establish implicit learning. We have seen in this chapter that learning can be implicit in some senses but not in others. Future research should continue to determine the critical ways in which implicit and explicit learning differ.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Some of the ideas in this chapter grew out of discussions with Zoltan Dienes during the process of writing our recent book on implicit learning.


REFERENCES

Abrams M. and Reber A. S. ( 1988). "Implicit lea in special populations". Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 17, 425-39.

Allen R. and Reber A. S. ( 1980). "Very long-term memory for tacit knowledge". Cognition, 8, 175-85.

Berry D. C. ( 1984). Implicit and explicit processes in the control of complex systems. Unpublished D.Phil. thesis. University of Oxford.

Berry D. C. ( 1991). "The role of action in implicit learning". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 881-906.

Berry D. C. ( 1994a). "Implicit learning: Twenty-five years on. A tutorial". In Attention and performance XV, (ed. C. Umilta and M. Moscovitch) pp. 755-82. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Berry D. C. ( 1994b). "A step too far?" Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 17, 397-8.

Berry D. C. and Broadbent D. E. ( 1984). "On the relationship between task perfor mance and associated verbalisable knowledge". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 209-31.

Berry D. C. and Broadbent D. E. ( 1987). "The combination of explicit and implicit learning processes". Psychological Research, 49, 7-15.

Berry D. C. and Broadbent D. E. ( 1988). "Interactive tasks and the implicit-explicit distinction". British Journal of Psychology, 79, 251-72.

Berry D. C. and Broadbent D. E. (in press). "Implicit learning in the control of complex systems". In Complex problem solving: The European perspective, (ed. P. Frensch and J. Funke). Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Berry D. C. and Dienes Z. ( 1993). Implicit and explicit knowledge in human performance. Erlbaum, Hove.

Brewer W. F. ( 1974). "There is no convincing evidence for operant or classical conditioning in adult humans"

-222-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Implicit Cognition
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 305

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.