implicit and explicit processes to performance on a single task, for example by applying Jacoby's ( 1991) process-dissociation technique. Experiments in progress by Dienes and colleagues and in our own laboratory are currently doing this.
Finally, to return to the question of how implicit is implicit learning, the answer really depends on the criteria used to establish implicit learning. We have seen in this chapter that learning can be implicit in some senses but not in others. Future research should continue to determine the critical ways in which implicit and explicit learning differ.
Some of the ideas in this chapter grew out of discussions with Zoltan Dienes during the process of writing our recent book on implicit learning.
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