German Women in the Nineteenth Century: A Social History

By John C. Fout | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
"Die Leserinnen." Morgenblatt für gebildete Stände, 2 (1830), pp. 1045-46.
2
F. H. C. Schwarz, Grundsätze der ochtererziehung für die Gebildeten ( Jena, 1836), pp. 214-15. J. Wychgram, "Geschichte des höheren Mächenschulwesens in Deutschland und Frankreich", in Geschichte der Erziehung vom Anfang bis auf unsere Zeit, ed. by K. A. Schmid, ( Stuttgart, 1901), vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 268. It is interesting to note that similar dire predictions that too much education would harm girls' health were also used by French educators in the second half of the nineteenth century. See Linda L. Clark, "The Molding of the Citoyenne: The Image of the Female in French Educational Literature, 1880- 1914", Third Republic, nos. 3-4 ( 1977), p. 94.
3
Jean Jacques Rousseau, Emile ( New York, 1974), pp. 321-444, passim.
4
Eberhard Weis, Montgelas, 1759-1799. Zwischen Revolution und Reform (Munich, 1971). This is the first volume of Weis's monumental biography of Montgelas. It details his life and the political plans he had for Bavaria before he actually took office.
5
Rudolf Hindringer, Das kirchliche Schulrecht in Altbayern. Von Albrecht V. bis zum Erlasse der bayerischen Verfassungsurkunde, 1550-1818 ( Paderborn, 1916), p. 130.
6
Joseph Heigenmooser, "Geschichtliche Nachrichten über weltliche Lehrerinnen in Bayern," in Jahresbericht der königlichen KreisLehrerinnenbildungsanstalt für Oberbayern in München pro 1887-1888 ( Munich, 1888), p. 63.
7
Friedrich Faber, Ueber weibliche Bildung. Drei Reden an Heranreifende und Gereifte dieses Geschlechts ( Nuremberg, 1820), p. 22.
8
Elisabeth Blochmann, Das "Frauenzimmer" und die "Gelehrsamkeit" ( Heidelberg, 1966), pp. 54-55. As a means to ensure the proper education of both boys and girls, the Montgelas government established a network of school inspectors. These men, usually Catholic or Lutheran clerics, would visit the various schools and then file reports with the Local School Commission. They were not only to observe the teachers and the content of the instruction but also to determine if the teachers or the students showed any unpatriotic tendencies. See Michael Doeberl, Zur Geschichte der bayerischen Schulpolitik im 19. Jahrhundert. Sitzungsbericht der königlichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften ( Munich, 1812), p. 27; and Hindringer, p. 137.
9
Joanne Schneider, "An Historical Examination of Women's Education in Bavaria: Mädchenschulen and Contemporary Attitudes about Them, 1799-1848," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Brown University, 1977, pp. 32-35. On the cited pages is a list of directives issued by the Montgelas government pertaining to girls' schools. The directives are primarily from the years 1802 to 1809.
10
Maria Liobgid Ziegler, Die armen Schulschwestern von unserer Lieben Frau ( Munich, 1935), pp. 4-5; Berta Sachs, Pläne und Massnahmen der Regierung des Königs Max I Joseph Mädchenschulen Altbayerns. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Aufklärung in Bayern ( Munich, 1914), p. 15.
11
Lehrplan für alle churpfalzbayerischen deutschen Elementarschulen in

-66-

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