German Women in the Nineteenth Century: A Social History

By John C. Fout | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
The interpretation is commonly accepted in the literature. See Sidney B. Fay , "Bismarck's Welfare State", Current History, 18 ( 1950), pp. 2-3; also Gordon A. Craig , Germany, 1866-1945 ( New York, 1978), pp. 150-51; and Hajo Holborn , A History of Modern Germany, 1840-1945 ( New York, 1969), pp. 291- 93.
2.
I develop this argument in an article entitled "A Source Analysis in German Women's History: Factory Inspectors' Reports and the Shaping of Working-Class Lives, 1878-1914", in Central European History, 16 ( 1983), pp. 99-121. At a time when ideological notions began to define the family as "private" and unconnected to the busy, competitive world of work, inspectors knew better. Their campaign to supervise employment and enforce morality at work was designed to raise the moral standards at home and at play.
3.
In December 1891, old age and disability insurance had been extended to the self-employed in the tobacco industry. Deutsches Reichs-Gesetzbuch für Industrie, Handel, Gewerbe, 1, no. 2 ( Berlin, 1903), pp. 1491-93 (hereafter Gesetzbuch). It was not until 1914 that health insurance was extended to the self- employed workers in general. Staatsarchiv Dresden, Aussenstelle Bautzen (hereafter B), Amtshauptmannschaft Zittau (hereafter AZ), Nr. 8083, Bl. 1-18: extension of health insurance, 5 December 1913.
4.
See, among others, Louise Tilly and Joan Scott, Women, Work, and Family ( New York, 1978); also Robyn Dasey, "Women's Work and the Family: Women Garment Workers in Berlin and Hamburg Before the First World War", in The German Family, ed. by Richard J. Evans and W. R. Lee (Totowa, N.J., 1981), pp. 221-55; Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, "Patterns of Work and Family Organization: Buffalo's Italians", in The Family in History: Interdisciplinary Essays, ed. by Theodore K. Rabb and Robert I. Rotberg ( New York, 1971), pp. 111-26.
5.
Among two typical works, see Robert Wilbrandt, Die Weber in der Gegenwart. Sozialpolitische Wanderungen durch die Hausweberei und die Webfabrik (Jena, 1906), and by the same author, Die Frauenarbeit. Ein Problem des Kapitalismus ( Leipzig, 1906).
6.
The area is known best as the land of the Wends, a Slavic minority that survived in German territory. The Wends were peasants and lived in the northern part of the province. German migrants had settled the southern districts (Zittau and Löbau) and they undertook weaving. For a general introduction to the area see, among others, Edmund Gröllich, Die Baumwollweberei des sächsischen Oberlausitz und ihre Entwickelung zum Grossbetrieb ( Leipzig, 1911); Heinrich Gebauer , Die Volkswirtschaft im Königreiche Sachsen. Historisch, Geographisch und Statistisch dargestellt, vols. 2 and 3 ( Dresden, 1893); Karl Haupt, "Sagenbuch der Lausitz", Neues Lausitzisches Magazin, 40 ( 1863); Johann Köhler, Bilder aus der Oberlausitz, als ein Beitrag zur Vaterlandskunde (Boudissin [Bautzen], 1895); and Rudolf Lehmann, "Niederlausitz und Oberlausitz in vergleichender geschichtlicher Betrachtung", Jahrbuch für die Geschichte Mittel- und Ostdeutschlands, 7 ( 1958), pp. 93-139.
7.
Gröllich, Die Baumwollweberei, pp. 1-2; G. Korschelt, "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Webindustrie in der sächsischen Oberlausitz"

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