This monograph is based on a doctoral thesis submitted to the University of Adelaide in 1985. In the four years since that time further research has been carried out at the Menzies Library of the Australian National University and the Australian National Library in Canberra, at the Institute of International Relations in Taiwan, at the libraries of Harvard University, the Universities of Michigan and California ( Berkeley) in the United States, at the library of Hangzhou University in the People's Republic of China and at the Institute of International Relations in Taibei.
I gratefully acknowledge financial assistance from the University of Melbourne and the Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University as well as research grants from the Pacific Cultural Foundation, Taiwan, the Republic of China, and The Academies' Australia-China Exchange in the Humanities and Social Sciences provided by The Academy of the Social Sciences and the Australian Academy of the Humanities in Australia, which enabled me to undertake further research for this work.
Over the past three years I have attempted to clarify my thinking, hone the methodological approach, and further tighten the argument. For their assistance in this task I acknowledge with thanks the detailed and most helpful referees' reports on my thesis by Bill Brugger and Fred Teiwes and for their encouragement to publish the work. Fred Teiwes also read an additional chapter and put forward further useful suggestions. The Head of the Contemporary China Centre, Jon Unger, took time out from a heavy schedule to read and pass helpful comments on a draft of the manuscript and to take the trouble to think of the title.
The staff of the Asian Studies section of the Menzies Library of the Australian National University, in particular Y. S. Chan, Susan Prentice and Renata Osborne, have helped me locate sources from the superb collection in the library. I thank them for their uncomplaining assistance and consideration. Andrew Gosling and his staff of the East Asian Section, Asian Collection at the National Library provided cheerful and efficient service. Kay Dancey of the Cartography Unit, Research School of Pacific Studies drew the maps with great willingness and expertise.