They all hate us and fear us.
-- Henry Adams, November 7, 1861
Bull Run and the Threat of Foreign Intervention
On July 21, 1861, Confederate forces routed the Union army at Bull Run, convincing many Englishmen that separation was a fait accompli and dramatically raising the South's hopes for recognition. 1 Lyons referred to the North's stunning defeat twice in one note to his superiors. "Bull's Run" should be known as "Yankee's Run," Palmerston crowed to colleagues. The "Bull's Run Races" demonstrated that the North's lack of resolution was attributable to its "fighting for an Idea chiefly entertained by professional politicians," whereas the Confederates were "fighting for what they consider rightly or wrongly vital interests."2 Russell agreed. The Union defeat, he wrote Lyons, suggested the ab-