"'The Lounger'", The Critic, vol. 26, 1895, March
30, p. 247.
The bibliography on Cecilia Beaux is not large.
Useful works include: Cecilia Beaux autobiography, Background with Figures (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1930); Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist ( Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1974); Judith E. Stein, "'Profile of Cecilia Beaux'", Feminist
Art Journal, vol. 4, Winter, 1975-6, pp. 25-33, and Tara L. Tappert, 'Choices, the Life and Career of Cecilia Beaux: A Professional Biography', Ph.D., George Washington University, 1990. On Sargent, see Richard Ormond, John Singer Sargent: Paintings,
Drawings, Watercolours (Phaidon, London, 1970); John Singer Sargent and the Edwardian Age (Leeds
Art Gallery; National Portrait Gallery, London; Detroit Institute of Arts, April, 1979-December, 1979); John Singer Sargent ( Whitney Museum of American
Art, New York; The Art Institute of Chicago, October, 1986-April, 1987), with excellent essays by Patricia Hills
Gary A. Reynolds, and others;
Trevor J. Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent and
America ( Garland Publishing, New York, 1986). Prominent painter William Merritt Chase made the
statement about Beaux's greatness, in an 1899 speech
on Founders' Day at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh; Beaux's portrait Mother and Daughter ( Pennsylvania
Academy of the Fine Arts) had just been awarded first
prize at the Carnegie Galleries exhibition.
The idea of language as an instrument for the
production and maintenance of 'reality' is a component in the theoretical edifice proposed by Peter Berger
Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge ( 1966; rpt. Penguin Books, New York, 1984),
which provides conceptual support for my arguments
here. Roszika Parker and Griselda Pollock have
touched on the issue of male domination of artistic
practice in Old Mistresses: Women, Art, and Ideology
( Pantheon Books, New York, 1981), noting (p. 44) that
in the late nineteenth century, 'art by women was subsumed into bourgeois notions of femininity and furthermore, art historically, relegated to a special category which was presented as distinct from mainstream
cultural activity and public professionalism--the preserve of masculinity. Thus at the very moment of a numerical increase in the numbers of women artists
working professionally, women artists were represented as different, distinct, and separate on account of
their sex alone.' Tappert, "'Choices, the Life and Career
of Cecilia Beaux'", pp. 413-35, discusses Beaux's status along lines similar to those mapped out by Parker
and Pollock; she also surveys the critical review of Beaux but does not pursue its implications as I do
As a young art student, Beaux received private instruction from New York-based William Sartain, a
friend and erstwhile travelling companion of Eakins. Although she denied having any association with the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where Eakins
himself taught, her name did appear twice in the registry
of students, 1877-9; see Franklin H. Goodyear, "'Introduction'", Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist, p. 21.
Among other honours, Beaux was awarded the
Dodge Prize by the National Academy of Design, 1893; the Gold Medal of Honour by the Pennsylvania
Academy, 1898, and a Gold Medal at the PanAmerican Exposition, Buffalo, New York, 1900.
Untitled clipping, 1892, Cecilia Beaux Papers.
Microfilm roll no. 428, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Hereafter
referred to as Beaux papers.
Gary A. Reynolds, "'Sargent's Late Portraits'", John
Singer Sargent, p. 162; Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent and America, is indispensable for any study dealing with this aspect of the artist's career; 'Sargentolatry'
was coined by the English painter, Walter Sickert.
Clippings, "'The Fine Arts'", Dec. 1, 1897, and Pauline King, "'Cecilia Beaux'", from Harper's Bazaar, 1899; Beaux Papers, Roll 429.
See H. Wayne Morgan, Keepers of Culture: The
Art-Thought of Kenyon Cox, Royal Cortissoz, and
Frank Jewell Mather, Jr. ( Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio, 1989); and Sandra Lee Underwood, 'Charles H. Caffin: A Voice for Modernism
1897-1918', Ph.D., Indiana University, 1981.
Charles Caffin, "'Some American Portrait
Painters'", The Critic, vol. 44, 1904, January, pp. 43-4.