2.
Instructional Facilities

BACKGROUND

The teaching-learning process may be independent of building, time clock, season, status and curriculum. However, that portion locked into the institutionalized sequence of regulated instruction, and accordingly measured and quantified, can be termed scheduled instruction. About thirty per cent of the buildings on campus today are devoted to the function of scheduled instruction--of transmitting knowledge in formal surroundings.

Architectural expressions of instructional facilities to the time of the Civil War were no more than an enlargement of the Little Red Schoolhouse. The best of the early buildings, while "too gorgeous for a wilderness," were "too mean for a college," due to a lack of money and a scarcity of workmen. The size of the college enterprise was, as it always has been, a factor of what could be done.

Princeton's faculty, for example, around 1820, consisted of a professor and two tutors, and there were less than eighty students. A building or two sufficed for most of the early colleges. Their furnishings were primitive. A distinguished graduate of Yale, 1857, looking back at the end of his century, wrote, "The freshman recitation rooms were furnished with three rows of benches, were lighted with oil lamps, were occupied by a needy student as his rooms when not used by a class for recitation, and were cheerless and uncomfortable."1

Three buildings at Rutgers are illustrative of the changes that occurred in the architecture of instructional facilities through the first three quarters of the 19th century. Not especially significant except as models of their time, the Rutgers buildings show in their evolution three stages of growth in higher education: essential needs, expansion, and refinement. The first buildings were basically a collection of simple rooms; diversification began with the construction of individual buildings to accommodate new subject matter; finally, there was a period of aggrandizement in both exterior and interior.

Requirements for teaching science, particularly chemistry, set the pace in the begin

-65-

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Campus Planning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • I. Prospectus 1
  • 1 - Outlook 3
  • 2 - Campus Design in Perspective 13
  • 3 - Campus Planning 43
  • Ii. the Campus and Its Parts 55
  • Footnotes 65
  • 3 - Libraries and Museums 85
  • 4 - Research 95
  • 5 - Centers of Extracurricular LIfe 101
  • 6 - Institutional Services 113
  • 7 - Housing 119
  • Footnotes 145
  • 8 - Sports, Recreation and Physical Education 147
  • 9 - Circulation and Parking 159
  • 10 - Utilities 166
  • Section III: Campus Plans 169
  • 1 - Expanding the Campus 171
  • 2 - Organizing for Planning 173
  • 3 - Survey and Analysis of Existing Conditions 183
  • 4 - Programming the Development Plan 199
  • Footnotes 208
  • 5 - Design in Planning 209
  • 6 - A Selection of Development Plans 239
  • 7 - Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion 275
  • 8 - New Campuses 287
  • Acknowledgments: 308
  • Index 308
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