6.
Institutional Services
Institutional services are day to day non- instructional activities which enable the college and university to carry out efficiently its obligations to faculty, student and staff, fulfilling the purposes for which the institutions were chartered. The kinds and amounts of such services provided on any campus will necessarily differ in each case due to the innumerable variations in administrative structure and educational goals.
2 University of Miami Ashe Administration Building Architect: Watson, Deutschman and Kruse

INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES
The following functions are typical on most campuses and can be planned for accordingly:
1. Academic Affairs. These include the over-all direction and coordination of instruction in liberal, technical, general and professional education; the encouragement of scholarship, research and creative activity; and the extension of all these programs in ways suitable to those not regularly enrolled at the institution. Generally, academic affairs are administered by the president and the academic deans.
2. Student Affairs. This activity relates to all services dealing with admission, counseling, testing, health, record keeping, placement, student aid and student personnel functions.
3. Financial Operations. This consists of the fiscal management of all business enterprises on campus, and the administration of such services as housing, dining facilities, printing plants, laundry and related items.
4. Plant Operations. This covers the operation and maintenance of the physical plant, and occasionally the supervision of new construction and physical plant improvements.
5. Special Services. These activities include the alumni office, planning and development office, intercollegiate athletics, public information office, university and college presses, contract research offices.

In magnitude these non-instructional services comprise almost two thirds of the yearly current expenditures at the average college and university (see Table 9--Expenditures as Percentages). The scope of this enterprise is impressive. In 1957-58 college and university business officers paid out over $5.5 billion, $1.0 billion of which went for additions to the physical plant and the remainder going for goods, services and supplies, salaries and wages.


HISTORICAL TRENDS
In the beginning, instructional and adminisU+00 trative duties were combined in one person, but the increased scope of campus activities led to specialization. At small New England liberal arts colleges in the fifty years precedU+00 ing the 1930 depression, the ratio of non- academic personnel to students dropped from 1:57 to 1:21; during the same period the teacher to student ratio remained constant at 1:11. A selection of college catalogs in 1883 showed that 17 per cent of the titles cited were for non-instructional personnel; by 1933 this percentage had doubled.1The amount of space devoted to administration may continue to grow in the future, because of:
1. Growth in the average size of the institutions of higher learning and a proportionately greater rise in their non-current assets. (Table 10--Institutional Growth.)
2. Continuing enlargement of the scope of activities in higher education, including housing, extension services, contract research and publications.
3. Greater concern and better facilities for student health and welfare.
4. Development of sophisticated techniques in personnel and vocational guidance, and the widespread acceptance of their applicability and usefulness.
5. Greater demands on record keeping beU+00 cause of accreditation requirements, certifiU+00 cation of students' achievement for profesU+00 sional and graduate schools, and increasing requests for students' performance records by employers.
6. Enlargement of the number of federal and state aid programs, and a corresponding need for specialized skills in interpreting, administering and keeping track of procedural directives and monies which accompany such aid.
7. Elaborate employee benefit programs for instructional and non-instructional staff.
8. Establishment of self-study groups and professional offices to guide the development of the campus, such as institutional research and campus planning offices. Though the ad-

-113-

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Campus Planning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • I. Prospectus 1
  • 1 - Outlook 3
  • 2 - Campus Design in Perspective 13
  • 3 - Campus Planning 43
  • Ii. the Campus and Its Parts 55
  • Footnotes 65
  • 3 - Libraries and Museums 85
  • 4 - Research 95
  • 5 - Centers of Extracurricular LIfe 101
  • 6 - Institutional Services 113
  • 7 - Housing 119
  • Footnotes 145
  • 8 - Sports, Recreation and Physical Education 147
  • 9 - Circulation and Parking 159
  • 10 - Utilities 166
  • Section III: Campus Plans 169
  • 1 - Expanding the Campus 171
  • 2 - Organizing for Planning 173
  • 3 - Survey and Analysis of Existing Conditions 183
  • 4 - Programming the Development Plan 199
  • Footnotes 208
  • 5 - Design in Planning 209
  • 6 - A Selection of Development Plans 239
  • 7 - Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion 275
  • 8 - New Campuses 287
  • Acknowledgments: 308
  • Index 308
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