1.
Expanding The Campus

EXPANDING THE CAMPUS
Expansion of existing campuses may be accomplished in several ways. The academic year may be lengthened by dropping the traditional summer interlude and operating the school all year round -- from bi-semester to tri-semester. Kalamazoo College ( Michigan) increased its student enrollment 50% without raising the number of students in residence by using a four semester plan. Co-operative work-and-learn programs can also increase the theoretical capacity of the campus, just as sending students for a year's study abroad can make more space available. Through technical innovations such as television, language laboratories and self-learning programs, additional students can be accommodated. Increasing the size of classes, lengthening the school day and school week, full utilization of facilities through better scheduling or modest improvements in physical plant -- all these measures are useful in stretching the campus to its maximum size.At best, these and similar administrative actions will solve only part of the problems in the decade ahead. If American institutions are to meet their obligations as old campuses expand and new campuses are constructed for the expected increased enrollments, a major comprehensive planning effort is needed -- especially if the institutions of higher education are to reflect coherence, order and function in their overall design. Symbolically, steps taken to improve the campus design during a period of rapid expansion have great import for a nation whose cities are dissolving into visual chaos. As the leading edge of thought, institutions of higher education have a societal obligation to search out and engender those methods of physical planning which are useful in their own way to the institutions and have application in other areas as well. Few campuses are organized for this kind of long-range planning today, despite universally recognized benefits which such plans afford. Crisis, not caution-- panic, not prudence -- engender resolution and action, for planning typically seems to begin with an urgent request for immediate advice on an imminent improvement.The impetus may come from the insights of a gifted administrator returning home from an educational conference; from an architect frustrated by having to solve a building problem without the benefit of a master plan to site his commission; from a fund raiser meeting resistance from alumni who are unwilling to contribute to a future which has no physical form; from a crisis caused by the discovery that the best location for the new library was used last year for the buildings and grounds repair shops; or from a sudden benefice from a private donor for a memorial which all agree must have a special place on campus, prominent but not in the way of future construction.Under such conditions it would be best to begin the process of decision making by preparing a development plan. The strategy of starting with such a plan can be justified by the need for long range projections of land requirements and site locations in order to determine placement of the earliest construction. Also, the program for development plans can be sufficiently detailed to warrant a full commitment of resources for implementing the first projects.Physically, expansion requirements can be met in many ways, ranging from:
1. Renovations. Modest or extensive renovations can be carried out to increase and improve the quality and amount of useable space in existing buildings and outdoor spaces.
2. Accretion. Wings and floors may be added to existing buildings; or sizeable sections of whole new buildings may be fitted between existing buildings.
3. New Construction. When constructing new facilities, campuses may grow at their existing scale -- either horizontally or vertically. (Where elevators are not needed for major circulation, the campus scale is considered horizontal.) Campuses which are horizontally scaled may meet their expansion requirements by gradually changing to a vertical scale as they construct taller buildings.

All these maneuvers may be completed

-171-

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Campus Planning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • I. Prospectus 1
  • 1 - Outlook 3
  • 2 - Campus Design in Perspective 13
  • 3 - Campus Planning 43
  • Ii. the Campus and Its Parts 55
  • Footnotes 65
  • 3 - Libraries and Museums 85
  • 4 - Research 95
  • 5 - Centers of Extracurricular LIfe 101
  • 6 - Institutional Services 113
  • 7 - Housing 119
  • Footnotes 145
  • 8 - Sports, Recreation and Physical Education 147
  • 9 - Circulation and Parking 159
  • 10 - Utilities 166
  • Section III: Campus Plans 169
  • 1 - Expanding the Campus 171
  • 2 - Organizing for Planning 173
  • 3 - Survey and Analysis of Existing Conditions 183
  • 4 - Programming the Development Plan 199
  • Footnotes 208
  • 5 - Design in Planning 209
  • 6 - A Selection of Development Plans 239
  • 7 - Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion 275
  • 8 - New Campuses 287
  • Acknowledgments: 308
  • Index 308
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