The program lists gross quantities of physical improvements which must be provided to satisfy planning goals. The development plan indicates how these improvements might be scheduled by a target date. Particularly important is the sequence in which work is done during the planning period. Since there may be other alternatives in meeting these goals, space may be shifted from one department to another as enrollments rise and fall unpredictably during the planning period.

For example, at a southern state college, a recent study revealed that the agricultural management enrollments would gradually fall and those of food technology would rise. The two departments shared an obsolete building in the center of the campus, on a site better suited for general classrooms. The original program called for a new food technology building on the periphery of the campus, and a general classroom where the agricultural building stood. The improvements were scheduled for the same year. Political pressures from the legislature made it impossible to close out the agricultural department at an early date because there was sentimental attachment to the old "ag" building which was symbolic of the state's early contributions to higher education. The problem became one of phasing construction to meet both declining and rising departmental enrollments.

Stage 4. Penultimate adjustments. Despite differences that occasionally place reasonable men on either side of an issue, institutional planning is usually carried out with impartiality and intelligence. By the time the final program has been published, individual compromises have been made for the common good. But even at the moment of conclusion, changes will be made. Some of these modifications are political expediencies; others are chosen by a process of elimination. A board may decide that it cannot in good faith promote a new building program without first raising faculty salaries, "and there aren't prospects in sight for money for both." A sectarian college may opt to build a chapel rather than a new gymnasium. A conscientious president may defer construction of buildings for vocational courses, in favor of a stronger liberal arts program.

During programming a consensus will emerge on many issues, but there will always be a few items that escape logic and rationality. Last minute illumination -- the fresh thought that sees new solutions for old problems--also tends to keep programming a process rather than a product.

Planners for an eastern land-grant school carefully avoided the displacement of agricultural research plots, which obstructed the best direction for expansion. The institution's planning committee decided to exempt the plots as future building sites. An ingenious circulation scheme was planned to carry traffic around the agricultural grounds, in order to achieve an integrated campus. The preliminary plan was presented for the first time to the faculty. The chairman of the agricultural department was at the meeting and commented that the research plots looked "like pretty valuable land, and would it be possible to take up the soil, put it in sacks and carry it to another part of the campus." Further studies showed that this suggestion was feasible. A revised plan was prepared using the stripped test plots for building sites.

Then there are the accidents of God and man that may intervene between the time the program is completed and the plan published. The electorate may fail to vote the necessary bond issues; an important department chairman may be lured elsewhere, along with his entire research group; the library may burn down; and a losing football team may divert the legislature's support to a rival public institution across the state.


FOOTNOTES
1.
Horn Francis H. Dr.; "The Curriculum, Don't Leave It To The Faculty"; College and University Business; December, 1960.
2.
Confidential memorandum to the author.
3.
Confidential memorandum to the author.
4.
Horn, quoted in.
5.
"Academic Plan For The University Of California, Los Angeles"; 1962.
6.
Confidential memorandum to the author.

-208-

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Campus Planning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • I. Prospectus 1
  • 1 - Outlook 3
  • 2 - Campus Design in Perspective 13
  • 3 - Campus Planning 43
  • Ii. the Campus and Its Parts 55
  • Footnotes 65
  • 3 - Libraries and Museums 85
  • 4 - Research 95
  • 5 - Centers of Extracurricular LIfe 101
  • 6 - Institutional Services 113
  • 7 - Housing 119
  • Footnotes 145
  • 8 - Sports, Recreation and Physical Education 147
  • 9 - Circulation and Parking 159
  • 10 - Utilities 166
  • Section III: Campus Plans 169
  • 1 - Expanding the Campus 171
  • 2 - Organizing for Planning 173
  • 3 - Survey and Analysis of Existing Conditions 183
  • 4 - Programming the Development Plan 199
  • Footnotes 208
  • 5 - Design in Planning 209
  • 6 - A Selection of Development Plans 239
  • 7 - Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion 275
  • 8 - New Campuses 287
  • Acknowledgments: 308
  • Index 308
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