7.
Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion

SECTION 112: PROGRAMS AND CAMPUS EXPANSION
Section 112 is that portion of the 1961 amendments to the federal urban renewal laws which enables colleges and universities to assemble land for expansion, and to participate more fully than before in the renewal and redevelopment of blighted areas in their environs.In August, 1962, twenty-eight schools had projects involving Section 112 credits in the project execution stage; twenty-four institutions had projects in the planning stage; and twenty-five others had filed statements of intention to begin preliminary planning.1This chapter summarizes the important legislative actions that have made institutional participation possible. Section 112 projects at Drexel Institute of Technology ( Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), the University of Oregon ( Eugene, Oregon), and Temple University ( Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) are illustrated in detail. Ten additional projects in execution stage are described in Table 18, Page 276.2
FEDERAL URBAN RENEWAL LEGISLATION
Urban renewal constructively channels the normal processes of city growth by coordinating public and private improvements in accordance with the community's long range development objectives. The key actions in any renewal effort are:
1. Conservation -- the preservation of built up areas in good condition; the provision of better municipal services through code enforcement; and the encouragement of private groups to maintain their facilities.
2. Rehabilitation -- the improvement of predominantly built up areas threatened by blight; through the demolition of selected sub-standard structures, repair and modernization of existing buildings, provision of public improvements and services to restore the area to a useful condition.
3. Redevelopment -- the revision or replacement of existing land uses which are substandard or counter to the long-range redevelopment of the area. This action usually requires land clearance.

The educational goals of an institution are obviously served by any preservation and rehabilitation measures taken in its environs. Many colleges and universities have actively participated in cooperative efforts of this nature. It is only recently, however, that redevelopment has begun to play a special role in providing land and other advantages which allow the institution to expand beyond its existing boundaries under the provisions of federal legislation.

The incentives for redevelopment can be traced back to Title I of the Housing Act of 1949. Under this provision, enabling legislation in each state would permit local governments and their special authorities to use Federal loans and capital grants to acquire and clear slums and blighted areas in accordance with a local plan for renewal.

Federal loans and grants are intended to make up the difference between the cost of acquiring and clearing land, and the monies obtained for selling the land for a redeveloped use. Two kinds of cost are involved. Gross costs comprise the totals invested or spent in the redevelopment area: to plan and administer the redevelopment project; to acquire, clear, prepare, and dispose of the land for re-use; and to provide public services and public improvements necessary to support the proposed redevelopment. Net project costs are the difference between gross project cost and proceeds received from disposition of the land.

Net project costs are shared by the federal government and the municipality, generally with the government bearing two-thirds of the cost and the municipality expending one-third. However, a number of states provide grants and loans which are occasionally used to cover the local authority's one-third share. This sharing ratio may also be changed to three-quarters federal and one-quarter local under certain administrative conditions, or on the basis of population size.3

The local authorities' share may be in the form of any combination of credits for improvements in the redevelopment area, or as cash grants. Non-cash grants may be pooled

-275-

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Campus Planning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • I. Prospectus 1
  • 1 - Outlook 3
  • 2 - Campus Design in Perspective 13
  • 3 - Campus Planning 43
  • Ii. the Campus and Its Parts 55
  • Footnotes 65
  • 3 - Libraries and Museums 85
  • 4 - Research 95
  • 5 - Centers of Extracurricular LIfe 101
  • 6 - Institutional Services 113
  • 7 - Housing 119
  • Footnotes 145
  • 8 - Sports, Recreation and Physical Education 147
  • 9 - Circulation and Parking 159
  • 10 - Utilities 166
  • Section III: Campus Plans 169
  • 1 - Expanding the Campus 171
  • 2 - Organizing for Planning 173
  • 3 - Survey and Analysis of Existing Conditions 183
  • 4 - Programming the Development Plan 199
  • Footnotes 208
  • 5 - Design in Planning 209
  • 6 - A Selection of Development Plans 239
  • 7 - Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion 275
  • 8 - New Campuses 287
  • Acknowledgments: 308
  • Index 308
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