8.
New Campuses

"The first two factors created an environment which was inefficient, difficult and expensive to operate, and often unpleasant but, by themselves, these factors did not necessarily dictate relocation . . . In every case . . . the high cost of surrounding land made its acquisition economically impractical."

(NEW CAMPUSES FOR OLD-- A CASE STUDY OF FOUR CAMPUSES THAT MOVED)


HOW MANY?

The surge in higher education enrollments has been accommodated by expanding older campuses and developing new institutions. In 1962 at least fifty new campuses reached the planning or construction stage. The tempo is unusual but the phenomenon is not special to our age. On the average, the United States has built a new campus a month since the Declaration of Independence.

These great enterprises, and sometimes modest undertakings, have been prompted by the desire to experiment, to support a religion, or to serve a region. In the 19th century neither fear of Indian attacks, lack of proper secondary schools, severity of climate, nor general poverty prevented dedicated people from advancing the cause of higher education. While some of the earlier reasons for starting new campuses still hold true, the impetus for 20th century growth is largely population increase and the requirements of a technological society, as described in the first chapter of this book.

A few new campuses are also being built because older institutions want to move to a better site. This kind of transition too can be observed as part of the historical pattern of American higher education. Trinity College ( Connecticut) vacated its original site to make way for the State Capitol; Western Kentucky College moved from bottom lands to hilltop, Columbia University, from downtown to uptown--all these prior to the age of the automobile, and all because of a need to accommodate expansion.

The incentives to move in recent years have been chiefly urban blight in the environs of the institution and the operational problems that arise when institutional land holdings are not contiguous, but broken up by streets and parcels not held by the schools. However, the critical factor in the decision to move (as reported by the Educational Facilities Laboratories, Inc., and quoted to the right) has been the institution's inability to acquire additional land at reasonable prices. Considering the institution's potential role as a cultural and economic resource in the community in which it is located, and its usefulness as a force and theme in improving the urban environment, then the extension and application of urban renewal techniques might profitably be re-examined so as to utilize more fully the institution as "generator of urban form."

Another small group of new campuses represents satellites of existing schools. Satellites are started rather than a new college or university because the mother campus can supply the capital and administrative talents necessary to operate the institution. In addition the satellite can share the academic status and prestige of the sponsoring unit. Some private and public schools use the satellites as feeders and filters for the main campus. Occasionally this is done because the geographic area in which the satellite is located is too small to support a complete campus. Also, this system enables the central campus to concentrate on upper division and graduate studies. Drop-out rates are highest in the first two years. Those students successfully completing junior division courses can move on to the main campus, which is freed in part of the influx of the junior division students. Sometimes satellite campuses are established because the sponsoring institution wants to stake out territorial rights in a growing population area.

How many new campuses will be constructed in the next decade because of these reasons is a matter of speculation. Educational purpose is one factor to be considered; size, another. In guessing what may happen I would divide the prospects into three parts: university growth, college growth, and junior or community college growth.

In estimating the number of new university campuses, I share the view of those who believe that 25,000 students is the maximum desirable optimum enrollment for a university on a single campus. Beyond that figure the vis-a-vis relationships between members of the academic community become attenuated. Higher density facilities are needed to maintain the necessary com-

-287-

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Campus Planning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Table of Contents v
  • I. Prospectus 1
  • 1 - Outlook 3
  • 2 - Campus Design in Perspective 13
  • 3 - Campus Planning 43
  • Ii. the Campus and Its Parts 55
  • Footnotes 65
  • 3 - Libraries and Museums 85
  • 4 - Research 95
  • 5 - Centers of Extracurricular LIfe 101
  • 6 - Institutional Services 113
  • 7 - Housing 119
  • Footnotes 145
  • 8 - Sports, Recreation and Physical Education 147
  • 9 - Circulation and Parking 159
  • 10 - Utilities 166
  • Section III: Campus Plans 169
  • 1 - Expanding the Campus 171
  • 2 - Organizing for Planning 173
  • 3 - Survey and Analysis of Existing Conditions 183
  • 4 - Programming the Development Plan 199
  • Footnotes 208
  • 5 - Design in Planning 209
  • 6 - A Selection of Development Plans 239
  • 7 - Urban Renewal and Campus Expansion 275
  • 8 - New Campuses 287
  • Acknowledgments: 308
  • Index 308
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