DESPITE THE TIES THAT would seem to unite Latin American countries-- a common colonial heritage, cultural affinities, and two, very similar, dominant languages--early movements toward economic cooperation and political unification ended in failure. The philosophical discourse on Latin American cooperation in the nineteenth and the early twentieth century failed to make a concrete case for regional union. Even Bolivar, who is proclaimed--probably wrongly--the father of Pan Americanism and of the inter-American system, gave no evidence of an integration philosophy in his writings. Bolivar's plans for international cooperation in the Western Hemisphere called for a close relationship among the former Spanish colonies, with Great Britain as their protector against the other European powers and the United States.
The doctrine of Pan Latin Americanism arose in the twentieth century as a defense against the overwhelming political and economic power of the United States. While it was openly directed against the expansionist and interventionist policies of Theodore Roosevelt, it was more than a political protest. The writings of such influential Latin American intellectuals of the early years of the century as José Enrique Rodó of Uruguay, Manuel Ugarte of Argentina, Rubén Darío of Nicaragua, and Francisco García Calderón of Peru abound in exhortations for Latin American economic cooperation. Their purpose was to bring some measure of political and economic independence to a continent hopelessly divided into a score of weak,