Specialization in historical scholarship may take many forms besides geographical, including topical specialization, specialization by time period, by ethnic group, by major event, and by famous individual. In each of these areas, research is conducted, courses are offered in universities, and associations are organized.
Topically specialized history, like geographically specialized, arose in the nineteenth century and blossomed luxuriantly in the post- World War II period. The most usual forms in which it first appeared were economic and social, religious, and scientific history. The major European countries and the United States, for example, acquired scholarly journals of religious history relatively early. The Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte was founded in 1876, the Revue de l'histoire des religions in 1880, and Church History in 1932. British journals on the history of science show how thoroughly an area can be covered. Britain shared Isis, the influential international review of the history of science that began in 1912, with the rest of the world. In 1922 the Journal of the Newcomen Society, which treated the history of engineering and technology, was established; the Annals of Science in 1936; Ambix: The Journal of the Society for the Study of Alchemy and Early Chemistry in 1937; the British Journal for the History of Science in 1962; and the History of Science, also in 1962. In the United States, where specialization has admittedly gone the farthest, there are now journals of railway history, forest history, spelean history, family history, labor history, psychohistory, burlesque history, the history of biology, the