Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens

By Stanley J. Bolanowski Jr; George A. Gescheider | Go to book overview

Preface

This volume contains the proceedings of the "Conference on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes" held at the Sheraton Inn and Conference Center on the campus of Syracuse University, 31 July to 2 August 1989. The conference was held to honor the memory of S.S. Stevens, a pioneer in the scaling of sensory magnitudes and the originator of the method of magnitude estimation. It was fitting and proper that his wife, Mrs. Geraldine Stevens, the Honorary Chairperson of the Conference, gave the opening remarks. Geraldine Stevens "Small Oral History" of the founding and growth of the Psycho-acoustic laboratory at Harvard University, reproduced in the following section, provided a fitting beginning to this conference. Mrs. Stevens reflected that she could "only wish Smitty could have been here with you today to share the fun, hear about your progress, and add his point of view."

The Conference brought together, for the first time, 20 authorities on the procedures of ratio scaling, among them psychophysicists, physiologists, and theoreticians. The purpose of the Conference was to reassess whether or not psychological magnitudes can be measured, and whether the judgments of psychological magnitudes constitute the basis for the construction of a ratio scale. An ancillary topic was whether any single method could stand out as a potential standard technique for measuring psychological magnitudes. To these ends, most of the participants focused on the issue as it applied to the study of sensory systems. The organizers of the Conference, as well as all the participants, felt that the topics discussed were both timely and important, because this field of psychology, and the sensory sciences in particular, suffers greatly from the lack of a uniform testing procedure to assess suprathreshold sensations. Whereas the discussions were at times quite lively, animated, and occasionally confrontational, they too were congenial and thoughtful and, all in all, led to a consensus on many issues relevant to psychophysical scaling methodology.

The oral history presented by Geraldine Stevens alluded to the support that the armed forces (i.e., Army Air Forces and the Office of Naval Research) gave to Smitty Stevens and his colleagues to ensure that their work would continue unabated. We also wish to thank the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory at Wright--Patterson Air Force Base and Mrs. Joanne Covo for their generous support that made the conference and this volume possible.

In addition to all the participants and invited guests, we also wish to thank the other members of the organizing committee, Drs. Ronald Ver

-vii-

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Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A Small Oral History ix
  • List of Participants xiv
  • 1: Introduction to Conference on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 1
  • References 7
  • 2: What Is A Ratio in Ratio Scaling? 8
  • Acknowledgments 16
  • References 17
  • 3: Natural Measurement 18
  • Introduction 18
  • Summary 25
  • References 25
  • 4: The Dynamics of Ratio Scaling 27
  • Introduction 27
  • Acknowledgments 41
  • References 41
  • 5: Magnitude Matching: Application to Special Populations 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Acknowledgments 57
  • References 57
  • 6: A Single Scale Based on Is Ratio and Partition Estimates 59
  • Introduction 59
  • References 77
  • 7: Associative Measurement of Psychological Magnitude 79
  • References 98
  • 8: Toward A Unified Psychophysical Law and Beyond 101
  • Introduction 101
  • References 111
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • Acknowledgments 127
  • References 127
  • 10: Multiple Moduli and Payoff Functions in Psychophysical Scaling 129
  • Introduction 129
  • Acknowledgments 138
  • References 138
  • 11: Quality Assurance in Environmental Psychophysics 140
  • References 160
  • 12: Brightness Sensation and the Neural Coding of LIght Intensity 163
  • Introduction 163
  • Acknowledgments 181
  • References 181
  • 13c: Hemosensory Representation in Perception and Memory 183
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 197
  • 14: Loudness Adaptation Measured by the Method of Successive Magnitude Estimation 199
  • Introduction 199
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • References 212
  • 15: Loudness Measurement by Magnitude Scaling: Implications for Intensity Coding 215
  • Introduction 215
  • Acknowledgment 226
  • References 226
  • 16: The Loudness of Non-Steady State Sounds: Is A Ratio Scale Applicable? 229
  • Introduction 229
  • Conclusions 243
  • Acknowledgment 244
  • References 244
  • 17: Ratio Scaling, Taste Genetics, and Taste Pathologies 246
  • References 257
  • 18: Measurement of VIbrotactile Sensation Magnitude 260
  • Introduction 260
  • Summary 272
  • Acknowledgments 273
  • 19: Lntersensory Generality of Psychological Units 277
  • Introduction 277
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 293
  • 20: Final Comments on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 295
  • Introduction 295
  • References 309
  • Author Index 313
  • Subject Index 321
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