Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens

By Stanley J. Bolanowski Jr; George A. Gescheider | Go to book overview

relations between more than two ordered systems, then except for a single strictly increasing function, everything is related as powers of ratios of scale values. The only way the unknown function was eliminated was to insist that one of the ratios had a special status. In accounting for the regularity found with single stimulus procedures, he was forced to assume an implicit standard stimulus with respect to which ratios are computed. This formulation of Shepard ( 1978, 1981) earlier ideas is called relation theory.


CONCLUSION

Krantz ( 1972) concluded: "The principal reason for favoring relation theory over the others is that it gives a satisfactory account of generalization (iv): that magnitude estimates predict cross-modality matches, independent of the choice of the moduli in the cross-modality matching" (p. 174). His theory has the failing that ratios are preserved only up to an unknown function.

The present theory, which identifies stimulus ratios with translations in the qualitative structure describing the stimulus domains, meets all his criteria listed at the beginning (see the section "Krantz's Five Empirical Generalizations") without introducing a free function. It does this by introducing the idea of preserving stimulus ratios in the form of translation consistency, which is an empirically testable property. This property embodies the intuitive idea that the psychology of the situation (i.e., the matching relation) should be completely consistent with the physics of the situation (i.e., the two qualitative relational structures being matched). Should translation consistency fail, then the laws of matching simply cannot be formulated in a manner similar to the laws of physics. Put another way, the psychophysics of matching would not be an extension of physics.

The fact that approximate power functions are found empirically for certain attributes having to do with stimulus intensity suggests that translation consistency may be valid there, which has led to a search for sources of bias to account for discrepancies from power functions. What does not fit at all well into this view of psychophysics is the evidence that the exponents are subject to easy manipulation ( King & Lockhead, 1981).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Preparation of this chapter was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant IRI-8996149 to the University of California at Irvine. The research on which it is based is Luce ( 1990)

-16-

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Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A Small Oral History ix
  • List of Participants xiv
  • 1: Introduction to Conference on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 1
  • References 7
  • 2: What Is A Ratio in Ratio Scaling? 8
  • Acknowledgments 16
  • References 17
  • 3: Natural Measurement 18
  • Introduction 18
  • Summary 25
  • References 25
  • 4: The Dynamics of Ratio Scaling 27
  • Introduction 27
  • Acknowledgments 41
  • References 41
  • 5: Magnitude Matching: Application to Special Populations 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Acknowledgments 57
  • References 57
  • 6: A Single Scale Based on Is Ratio and Partition Estimates 59
  • Introduction 59
  • References 77
  • 7: Associative Measurement of Psychological Magnitude 79
  • References 98
  • 8: Toward A Unified Psychophysical Law and Beyond 101
  • Introduction 101
  • References 111
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • Acknowledgments 127
  • References 127
  • 10: Multiple Moduli and Payoff Functions in Psychophysical Scaling 129
  • Introduction 129
  • Acknowledgments 138
  • References 138
  • 11: Quality Assurance in Environmental Psychophysics 140
  • References 160
  • 12: Brightness Sensation and the Neural Coding of LIght Intensity 163
  • Introduction 163
  • Acknowledgments 181
  • References 181
  • 13c: Hemosensory Representation in Perception and Memory 183
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 197
  • 14: Loudness Adaptation Measured by the Method of Successive Magnitude Estimation 199
  • Introduction 199
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • References 212
  • 15: Loudness Measurement by Magnitude Scaling: Implications for Intensity Coding 215
  • Introduction 215
  • Acknowledgment 226
  • References 226
  • 16: The Loudness of Non-Steady State Sounds: Is A Ratio Scale Applicable? 229
  • Introduction 229
  • Conclusions 243
  • Acknowledgment 244
  • References 244
  • 17: Ratio Scaling, Taste Genetics, and Taste Pathologies 246
  • References 257
  • 18: Measurement of VIbrotactile Sensation Magnitude 260
  • Introduction 260
  • Summary 272
  • Acknowledgments 273
  • 19: Lntersensory Generality of Psychological Units 277
  • Introduction 277
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 293
  • 20: Final Comments on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 295
  • Introduction 295
  • References 309
  • Author Index 313
  • Subject Index 321
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