|Useful measurements can be made without numbers.|
|Measurement should be defined as matching common attributes of things or events.|
|The matching operation occurs on an ordinal scale.|
|People and animals are successful in measuring aspects of their environments with the help of their senses, not using any instruments.|
|Such measurement must be based on internal matching of common aspects of subjective impressions of the physical variables measured. I have called it natural measurement.|
|Natural measurement predates the formal physical measurement.|
|Numbers are introduced automatically into natural measurement when the behavioral responses are quantized.|
|When the numbers of some physical units are introduced, it becomes possible to express the behavioral results of internal matching as functions of associated physical variables.|
|There is no fundamental difference between natural measurement and psychophysical matching experiments.|
|The problem of coupling numbers to subjective impressions in such experiments has been solved in principle, but work should continue on minimizing biases and variability associated with the coupling.|
Bolanowski S. J., Jr. ( 1987). "Contourless stimuli produce binocular brightness summation". Vision Research, 27, 1943-1951.
Collins A. A., & Gescheider G. A. ( 1989). "The measurement of loudness in individual children and adults by absolute magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85, 2012-2021.