Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens

By Stanley J. Bolanowski Jr; George A. Gescheider | Go to book overview

slopes among subjects lends credibility to the method as a procedure to examine individuals.


DISCUSSION

The interactive training program for making numerical introspections of subjective magnitude has been shown as a robust method for studying the perceptual scales of individuals. As an adjunct to other tasks (e.g., scaling various complex and physically unmeasurable properties), it permits us to screen subjects who are unable to perform the required task.

Other advantages accrue to this procedure. Outliers are minimized through the use of feedback and appropriate queries about aberrant judgments. This yields data that probably reflect more clearly the intended responses of the subject. The method improves traditional procedures in at least two ways: It is more robust because each judgment is independent of all others, and so sequential bias cannot creep in to induce departures from the underlying percepts. Furthermore, by reducing intertrial dependencies the commonly reported compounding or cumulation of error is avoided. Second, the use of ratios as a representation of both stimuli and responses defeats complaints about the legitimacy of the response representation as a scale of magnitude with no underlying theoretical support ( Krantz, 1972; Shepard, 1981).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Portions of the work reported here were supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. All magnetic materials, tape, cassettes, and disks, were provided through the generosity of the Maxell Corporation of America.


REFERENCES

Baird J. C., & Noma E. ( 1975). "Psychophysical study of numbers: Generation of numerical responses". Psychological Research, 37, 281-297.

Galanter E. ( 1988). "Smooth psychophysical functions from individuals". "Fechner Day 88", Stirling: International Society for Psychophysics, 41-46.

Galanter E. ( 1989). "Modulus estimation: quantification of single events". Psychophysics Laboratory Report 89/3. New York: Columbia University.

Graham C., & Ratoosh P. ( 1962). "Notes on some interrelations of sensory psychology, perception and behavior". In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science (Vol. 4, pp. 483-514). New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A Small Oral History ix
  • List of Participants xiv
  • 1: Introduction to Conference on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 1
  • References 7
  • 2: What Is A Ratio in Ratio Scaling? 8
  • Acknowledgments 16
  • References 17
  • 3: Natural Measurement 18
  • Introduction 18
  • Summary 25
  • References 25
  • 4: The Dynamics of Ratio Scaling 27
  • Introduction 27
  • Acknowledgments 41
  • References 41
  • 5: Magnitude Matching: Application to Special Populations 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Acknowledgments 57
  • References 57
  • 6: A Single Scale Based on Is Ratio and Partition Estimates 59
  • Introduction 59
  • References 77
  • 7: Associative Measurement of Psychological Magnitude 79
  • References 98
  • 8: Toward A Unified Psychophysical Law and Beyond 101
  • Introduction 101
  • References 111
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • Acknowledgments 127
  • References 127
  • 10: Multiple Moduli and Payoff Functions in Psychophysical Scaling 129
  • Introduction 129
  • Acknowledgments 138
  • References 138
  • 11: Quality Assurance in Environmental Psychophysics 140
  • References 160
  • 12: Brightness Sensation and the Neural Coding of LIght Intensity 163
  • Introduction 163
  • Acknowledgments 181
  • References 181
  • 13c: Hemosensory Representation in Perception and Memory 183
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 197
  • 14: Loudness Adaptation Measured by the Method of Successive Magnitude Estimation 199
  • Introduction 199
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • References 212
  • 15: Loudness Measurement by Magnitude Scaling: Implications for Intensity Coding 215
  • Introduction 215
  • Acknowledgment 226
  • References 226
  • 16: The Loudness of Non-Steady State Sounds: Is A Ratio Scale Applicable? 229
  • Introduction 229
  • Conclusions 243
  • Acknowledgment 244
  • References 244
  • 17: Ratio Scaling, Taste Genetics, and Taste Pathologies 246
  • References 257
  • 18: Measurement of VIbrotactile Sensation Magnitude 260
  • Introduction 260
  • Summary 272
  • Acknowledgments 273
  • 19: Lntersensory Generality of Psychological Units 277
  • Introduction 277
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 293
  • 20: Final Comments on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 295
  • Introduction 295
  • References 309
  • Author Index 313
  • Subject Index 321
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