This research was supported in part by NIH grants EY00667, EY00899, EY01520, NS09940, and NSF grant BNS8709059. I thank Steven C. Chamberlain, Syracuse University, for assistance with psychophysical measurements including first estimate data. Eliot L. Berson, Harvard Medical School, Ronald Carr, Irwin M. Siegel, and Harris Ripps, New York Medical Center, John A. Hoepner and Robert Slavens, SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse, helped identify subjects with abnormal vision. The Eye Research Institute of the Retina Foundation and its director Charles L. Schepens provided facilities for a number of the experiments.
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