ends so that waste and duplication may be minimized, if not avoided. Therefore, attention must now be turned to some of the methods by which a clear division of function may be attained at the same time that a cooperative program is developed.
Countless unofficial acts of cooperation are constantly performed by federal and state officials as they carry on their daily routine of work. Most important of cooperative actions, and yet most difficult to evaluate is consultation and conference between federal and state officials. Meeting together and talking over difficult situations are frequently the only possible methods of preventing or removing friction and misunderstanding, of dividing work, of planning programs concerned with subject matter common to the two governments. Where the federal and state governments are working side-by-side in handling different aspects of the same problem, duplication and waste are inevitable if the two governments do not constantly consult one another and if each is not willing to accept as well as to offer advice.
A second important type of informal cooperation is that found in an exchange of advisory and educational facilities. This arrangement appears to be attaining notable results in the fields of labor legislation and of national planning, where the federal government offers its aid and facilities, but where there is no compulsion for the states to accept them. It is true that the resources of the federal government are superior to those of any state and that it is from the federal government rather than from the states that leadership in such great programs must needs come. But one government may go further than merely to offer its services to the other. In carrying on its own work, in effect it renders important aid to the other government. In the development of the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Works Progress Administration in the great depression of the 1930's, the federal government, in carrying on its relief program, performed services of lasting value to the states, while they in turn aided the federal program.
Still another type of informal cooperation is found in a temporary loan of equipment or personnel when emergency or dis