While working on this book, I have accumulated many debts that I cannot begin to repay. I thank all who have helped me.
The initial research was funded in part by one of the first faculty research grants established by Jacksonville State University in 1982. This grant made possible a trip to the National Archives in Washington, D.C., where Jerry Hess aided me in locating the material on Alabama in the records of the various government agencies. At the Alabama Department of Archives and History, I am especially indebted to Jean Rankin, who provided me with much assistance finding state sources. Caldwell Delany at the City of Mobile Museum graciously allowed me unlimited access to the holdings of the museum. I also appreciate the assistance of Jane Keaton at the Department of Archives of the Birmingham Public Library.
Susan Hartmann of Ohio State University offered invaluable insights and positive suggestions to improve the manuscript. I deeply appreciate her careful reading and criticism. Several colleagues at Jacksonville State University consented to read and sometimes reread my manuscript. I owe a debt of gratitude especially to Ronald Caldwell, who helped me focus my writing and suggested the title for the book. I am also indebted to Anne Johnson, Lee Gilbert, Grace Gates, and George Whitesel, who gave freely of their time and made many helpful suggestions. Michael Thomason of the Uni