The Levels of Intervention
IN SOCIETIES of low political culture - the third order - the levels of military intervention are much extended. As in states of developed political culture, intervention by pressure and blackmail often occurs; but, in addition, the military are just as likely to come out into the open, overtly overturning governments and installing others (displacement) or even supplanting the civilian régime for good, installing itself in its place. Among countries of this type are to be reckoned Argentina and Brazil, Turkey, Spain, Egypt, Venezuela, Pakistan, the (pre-war) Balkan countries, Syria, Iraq, and the Sudan. There is unquestionably a great gap between countries at the head and the tail of the list. In any other sense than the level of political culture, Argentina and Sudan are poles apart. Yet politically, there is less of a gap between them than there is between any of them and the states of the second order of political culture dealt with above. The higher up this list of third-order states, the more difficult it proves for the military to retain power without some form at least of civilian trappings, or without organizing civilian support; and the lower down the scale, the easier it is for the military to retain power in their own name and by their own strength. In different ways both Argentina and Turkey differ sharply from most of the other countries in this category. They fall into this category, however, because like the rest - albeit for not quite the same reasons or by the same ways - they too suffer acutely from the absence of consensus, and from the feebleness of the organized attachment to the régime.
We are not the first to bracket Argentina, as far as her political behaviour is concerned, with 'the economically under-developed and