THE NATURE AND GROWTH OF UNIONS
THE DEVELOPMENT of industrial society in the Western World has been accompanied by the rise and expansion of organizations of wage earners attempting to improve their economic position as workers within the economy. Unions1 have now been recognized as an integral part of the natural history of industrialization, and writers and social scientists have tried to discover the reasons for their development and to appraise their nature and their role within the industrial system. While this process of investigation and evaluation is a never-ending one, several significant theories of unions and of the labor movement have been devised. In this chapter, we shall first review the more important theories and then turn to an analysis of the growth of American unions.
In one sense, the analysis of capitalism developed by Karl Marx in the nineteenth century is a theory of the labor movement in terms of its origin, growth, characteristics, and future. Marx held that the early devel-____________________