Bureau of the Census, United States Department of Commerce. How We're Changing -- Demographic State of the Nation: 1997. Current Population Reports, Special Studies Series, March 1997:23-193.
Douglas Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. New York: Collier. 1962.
Fogel Robert William. Without Consent or Contract, The Rise and Fall of American Slavery, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1989.
Franklin John Hope. The Two Worlds of Race: A Historical View, Race and History: Selected Essays 1938- 1988. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1989.
Frey William H. Emerging Demographic Balkanization: Toward One America or Two? University of Michigan Population Studies Center Research Report No. 97-410. 1997.
Guralnik David B., Editor in Chief. Websters New World Dictionary of the American Language, 2nd College Edition. New York and Cleveland: The World Publishing Company. 1972.
Hansen Kristin A. and Amara Bachu. The Foreign-Born Population: 1994. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, p. 1.
Hornsby Alton Jr. Chronology of African American History -- From 1492 to the Present, 2nd Edition. Gale Research, Detroit. 1997.
Miller E. Willard and Ruby Miller. United States Immigration, A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC CLIO Inc. 1996.
U. S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1992. Washington, DC: GPO, 1992. Table 2, p. 10.
U.S. Census Bureau Release 91-229; Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 1990.
U.S. Code Congressional and Administrative News. Legislative History -- Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, P.L. 414; Ch. 477, Laws of 82nd Congress -- 2nd Session, June 27, 1952.
U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration & Naturalization Service Statistics, October 1997.
Watson Bernard C. The Demographic Revolution: Diversity in 21st Century America, The State of Black America. New York: NAACP. 1992.