In my view I can discern no malevolence on the part of planners toward ethnic and racial groups. I do, however, think that planners were responding to prevailing cultural assumptions of their time and to some extent planners were also the foot soldiers of the elite in society, carrying out the orders in the trenches for their masters. That is why planners must have greater sensitivity to the values and aspirations of the people with whom they plan. This sensitivity will be forthcoming if planners learn to plan with rather than for the people.
Holistic planning will sensitize planners to the diversity of cultures in the country, reduce conflicts between planners and ethno-cultural groups, and legitimize planning among these groups by presenting an unbiased approach to community development. These qualities are needed of the planning profession to make it relevant in the twenty-first century.
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