racial advocacy. The three demands of a "strict" multiculturalism bring to mind Walzer's
( 1992:3-19) three moments of the politics of difference: articulation, negotiation, and
The inside-outside distinction corresponds to narrow and wide reflective equilibrium
respectively as developed by Stanley Stein and Thomas Harper (this volume).
On the political theory behind this position, see Habermas 1996.
The need to deliberate across group boundaries was one of the impetuses for redirecting
planning to greater emphasis on communication (
Tempering my critcism is that many critical pragmatists are quite attentive to the
behavior of individual planners ( Healey 1992a; Hoch 1994; Forester 1996a, 1992; Innes 1995). Nonetheless, the"identities" of the planners in their agruments are descriptive rather
Of course, a judgment of legitimacy is always problematic. Groups experiencing the
lesser consequences and only symbolically affected would seem to have less legitimacy than
those more substantively affected.
For discussions of how power mediates planning, see Forester 1989, Hoch 1992, 1984b, and especially Chambers 1994.
Along these lines, critical pragmatists and other theorists committed to deliberative
democracy often conflate civil society with the spheres of political action, the former being
less institutionalized and less implicated by power differences and strategic maneuvering
Hoch 1984a and Forester 1989 do recognize that individuals are embedded in
organizations and Verma 1996: 10 notes the need to attend to the "communities" that
influence sociological and psychological processes, but critical pragmatists stop short of
institutional analysis. For a compelling exception, see Healey 1997.
Alexander Ernest. After Rationality, What? Journal of the American Planning Association,
vol. 50, no. 1, Winter 1984:62-69.
Appiah K. Anthony. The Multicultural Misunderstanding. The New York Review of Books,
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Beauregard Robert A. Between Modernity and Postmodernity: The Ambiguous Position of
U.S.Planning. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 7, 1989:381-95.
Beauregard Robert A. Without a Net: Modernist Planning and the Postmodern Abyss. Journal of Planning Education and Research, vol. 10, no. 3, Summer 1991:189-94.
Beauregard Robert A. Writing the Planner. Journal of Planning Education and Research,
vol. 18, no. 2. 1998:101-09.
Bender Thomas. The Cultures of Intellectual Life: The City and the Professions in
(ed.), Intellect and Public Life. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University
Bernstein Richard J. The Resurgence of Pragmatism. Social Research, vol. 59, no. 4,
Blanco Hilda, How to Think About Social Problems. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishers. 1994.
Bowman James. Public Deliberation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 1996.
Calhoun Craig. Critical Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. 1995.
Castells Manuel. The Power of Identity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. 1997.
Chambers Robert. All Power Deceives. ids bulletin. vol. 25, no. 2, April 1994:14-26.