Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society

By Michael A. Burayidi | Go to book overview
racial advocacy. The three demands of a "strict" multiculturalism bring to mind Walzer's ( 1992:3-19) three moments of the politics of difference: articulation, negotiation, and incorporation.
6.
The inside-outside distinction corresponds to narrow and wide reflective equilibrium respectively as developed by Stanley Stein and Thomas Harper (this volume).
7.
On the political theory behind this position, see Habermas 1996.
8.
The need to deliberate across group boundaries was one of the impetuses for redirecting planning to greater emphasis on communication ( Healey 1992b).
9.
Tempering my critcism is that many critical pragmatists are quite attentive to the behavior of individual planners ( Healey 1992a; Hoch 1994; Forester 1996a, 1992; Innes 1995). Nonetheless, the"identities" of the planners in their agruments are descriptive rather than functional.
10.
Of course, a judgment of legitimacy is always problematic. Groups experiencing the lesser consequences and only symbolically affected would seem to have less legitimacy than those more substantively affected.
11.
For discussions of how power mediates planning, see Forester 1989, Hoch 1992, 1984b, and especially Chambers 1994.
12.
Along these lines, critical pragmatists and other theorists committed to deliberative democracy often conflate civil society with the spheres of political action, the former being less institutionalized and less implicated by power differences and strategic maneuvering ( Young 1994).
13.
Hoch 1984a and Forester 1989 do recognize that individuals are embedded in organizations and Verma 1996: 10 notes the need to attend to the "communities" that influence sociological and psychological processes, but critical pragmatists stop short of institutional analysis. For a compelling exception, see Healey 1997.

REFERENCES

Alexander Ernest. After Rationality, What? Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 50, no. 1, Winter 1984:62-69.

Appiah K. Anthony. The Multicultural Misunderstanding. The New York Review of Books, vol. 44, no. 15, October 9, 1997:30-36.

Beauregard Robert A. Between Modernity and Postmodernity: The Ambiguous Position of U.S.Planning. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 7, 1989:381-95.

Beauregard Robert A. Without a Net: Modernist Planning and the Postmodern Abyss. Journal of Planning Education and Research, vol. 10, no. 3, Summer 1991:189-94.

Beauregard Robert A. Writing the Planner. Journal of Planning Education and Research, vol. 18, no. 2. 1998:101-09.

Bender Thomas. The Cultures of Intellectual Life: The City and the Professions in Thomas Bender (ed.), Intellect and Public Life. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993:3-15.

Bernstein Richard J. The Resurgence of Pragmatism. Social Research, vol. 59, no. 4, Winter 1992:813-40.

Blanco Hilda, How to Think About Social Problems. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishers. 1994.

Bowman James. Public Deliberation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 1996.

Calhoun Craig. Critical Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. 1995.

Castells Manuel. The Power of Identity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. 1997.

Chambers Robert. All Power Deceives. ids bulletin. vol. 25, no. 2, April 1994:14-26.

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