Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society

By Michael A. Burayidi | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
By "Postmodernism," we mean "a way of understanding and conceptualizing that forms a radical break with modernism," one "not commensurable with the Enlightenment values" ( Milroy 1991:183).
2
See Harper and Stein ( 1995b) for a discussion of weaknesses in this critique.
3
Critical Theorists following Habermas ( 1984) are not postmodernists in the sense we are using the term.
4
See Stein and Harper ( 1996) for a discussion of the problems arising from radical paradigm shifts.
5
Foucault need not be taken as providing a universalist account. His genealogies can be regarded as completely contextual. Then they're very similar to our view.
6
The term "reflective equilibrium" seems to have originated with Goodman ( 1965). Rawls ( 1971) brought it into ethical discourse; Rawls ( 1974) first distinguished "wide" and "narrow" equilibria; Daniels ( 1985) popularized the term "wide reflective equilibrium" to distinguish it from the narrow reflective equilibrium of ethical intuitionists ( Nielsen 1991).
7
This definition is adapted from Daniels ( 1985).
8
A "WRE" is a state where all the elements outlined are in coherence; a "WRE process" is a process of seeking to move toward such a state.
9
We have added "scientistic" for clarification.
10
However, these notions are no longer viewed as foundational absolutes.
11
Neo-pragmatists reject the scheme/content distinction: the notion that one conceptual scheme (account) is better or truer or "closer to reality" than another.
12
It is very problematic whether a government authority (particularly one providing financial support) can ever be seen as noncoercive by nondominant cultures.
13
If advocates of WRE make this claim (which they seem to come very close to), then they have slipped into a new form of foundationalism.
14
As we have argued elsewhere ( 1995b), we should retain the liberal, and discard the scientistic, aspects of the enlightenment.

REFERENCES

Connelly M. P., T. M. Li, M. MacDonald, and J. L. Paspart. "Restructured Worlds/ Restructured Debates: Globalization, Development and Gender". Canadian Journal of Development Studies. 1995:17-38.

Daniels N. "Two Approaches to Theory Acceptance in Ethics" in D. Comp and D. Zimmerman (eds) Morality, Reason and Truth. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanhold. 1985.

Etzioni A. The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities and the Communitarian Agenda. NY: Crown Publishers. 1993.

Foucault M. Power/Knowledge. C. Gordon (ed.). C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham, and K. Koper (trans.) NY: Pantheon Books. 1980.

Friedmann J. Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1987.

Gilligan Carol. "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and of Morality" in M. Pearsall (ed.) Women and Values: Readings in Recent Feminist Philosophy. Belmount, CA: Wadsworth. 1977:309-39.

Goodman N. Fact, Fiction and Forecast, 2nd ed. New York: Bobbs-Merrill. 1965.

Habermas J. The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston: Beacon Press. 1984.

-81-

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