riage are related to variations in his adult achievements. The results were consistently supportive. The more closely a man's marriage conforms to the normative model, the greater are his adult achievements. Moreover, shifts toward more normative marriages (declines in wives' relative earnings, more children, greater family economic independence, and a more competitive marriage market) lead to significantly higher levels of adult achievement.

At this point it is possible to make this assertion: normative marriage is good for men's adult achievements. On a range of measures, and from a variety of approaches, the results of the analysis converge at this simple point.


NOTES
1.
The research used pooled cross-section time-series with fixed effects methods. Each year of information becomes a case (unit of analysis) for analysis. A single man interviewed every year from 1979 through 1993 would contribute 15 person years. Each variable is represented as a deviation from the average for the particular man. For example, income in 1979 is expressed as a deviation from the average income for all years for this particular man. The technique analyzes whether deviations on one variable (e.g., income) are greater (or less) in the presence of marriage (also expressed as a deviation from the average of all dummy variables for married/not married) than in the absence of marriage once the changes associated with chronological age are removed. The resulting coefficients indicate how much a variable changes, on average, when a man marries, independent of changes associated with age. Standard errors of regression coefficients have been adjusted to compensate for the consequences of pooling. The error coefficient from OLS is multiplied by the ratio of

where T = 15 waves, N= sample size for the equation, K = number of independent variables. In fixed effects analysis, regression is forced through the origin. All equations are restricted to men with annual incomes of less than $1,000,000.
2.
There is a possibility that the effect of marriage differs according to certain such factors, of course. For example, the average change in income following marriage may be larger for black men than white men. Such interaction effects were not part of the analysis presented, although they were studied in preliminary analyses.

-83-

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Marriage in Men's Lives
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Contents ix
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • 2 - Marriage as a Social Institution 11
  • Conclusion 41
  • 3 - Marriage and Masculinity 43
  • Summary 61
  • 4 - Adult Achievement 63
  • Notes 83
  • 5 - Personal Communities 84
  • Conclusion 107
  • Notes 110
  • 6 - When Men Help Others 112
  • Notes 128
  • 7 - The New Normative Marriage Is It Good for Men? 130
  • Appendix A - Multivariate Results for Chapter 4 Pooled Cross-Section Time-Series with Fixed Effects 143
  • Appendix B - Multivariate Results for Chapter 5 Conditional Change Models 145
  • Appendix C - Multivariate Results for Chapter 6 Conditional Change Models 151
  • References 153
  • Index 161
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