ALBANI, FRANCESCO ( 1578-1660). A Bolognese painter of the Carracci school who owes his renown chiefly to the way in which he exalted the grace and beauty of children in the numerous putti and amoretti of his mythological pictures (Dance of the Cupids, Milan Brera).
ALGARDI, ALESSANDRO ( 1602-1654), born in Bologna and trained by Lodovico Carracci and Giulio Conventi, was summoned to Rome as sculptor to the Curia by Pope Innocent X. His principal works are the marble tomb of Leo XI (St Peter's, Rome) and the impressive bronze of Innocent X (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome). In the great relief 'The Expulsion of Attila' (St Peter's, Rome) he subjected the strong movement of the groups of figures to a severely rhythmical composition. As an architect he designed the Villa Doria-Pamfili and the façade of S. Ignazio in Rome.
ASAM, COSMAS DAMIAN ( 1686-1739). Painter and architect. ASAM, EGID QUIRIN ( 1692-1756). Stuccoworker and sculptor. The two sons of Hans Georg Asam, trained in their profession from early youth, went to Rome in 1713, where they studied at first hand the language of forms of the Roman Full Baroque. Together they erected, from 1717 to 1721, one of their finest buildings: the monastic church of Weltenburg with the altar group of St George effectively lit by indirect means. They collaborated closely in the decoration of palaces and churches, held numerous appointments and enjoyed great repute. As well-to-do citizens, they were able to build, next to their residence in Munich, their own richly decorated Church of St Nepomuk. Furthermore, they excelled in decorating existing churches (Holy Trinity Church, Munich, 1715), and buildings erected by other masters (Osterhofen 1731, Weingarten 1718). Egid equipped the monastic church at Rohr with the magnificent sculptured altar-piece,'The Assumption of the Virgin' (ill. 229). With the work of these two gifted brothers South German Baroque reached its zenith.
AVERCAMP, HENDRICK ( 1585-1634). This Netherlandish painter specialized in winter landscapes. He especially liked painting frozen Dutch canals and lakes, with crowds of gaily clad skaters.
BAEHR, GEORG ( 1666-1738). The most important work of this Dresden Guild Master was the Frauenkirche there ( 1726-38), which became the prototype of a Protestant preaching-house (ill. 238). In this perfectly proportioned church with a relatively simple
ground-plan (130 X 130 ft) he succeeded in providing space for 3,600 people by skilfully arranging seven storeys of galleries. The interior dome was surmounted by a higher exterior one. Between the two domes a spiral staircase led up to the lantern. (Completely destroyed).
BANZ, MONASTERY. High above the valley of the Main and opposite the pilgrimage church of the Vierzehnheiligen stands the monastery of Banz which was begun in 1698 by the architects Leonhard and Johann Dientzenhofer and completed by Balthasar Neumann in 1753. The twin-towered church has a simple rectangular ground-plan, with extended choir; the interior, with its curved elliptic vaults and widely arched ribs, shows a great variety of fluid contours.
BERNINI, GIOVANNI LORENZO ( 1598-1680). Equally eminent as sculptor and architect. While in the service of the Pope, he designed St Peter's Square with its famous colonnades ( 1655-67), and also the elaborate bronze tabernacle above the Throne of St Peter inside the cathedral. In the Vatican, the Scala Regia and the equestrian statue of Constantine are by his hand. Bernini was also responsible for several notable fountains, such as the Fontana dei Fiumi (ill. 222) in the Piazza Navona, and the Fontana del Tritone. His outstanding ecclesiastical building is S. Andrea al Quirinale; the ground-plan is elliptical with chapel niches all around, and it has an elegantly curved atrium ( 1678). But it was the sculptor Bernini who, even more than the architect, led the Baroque to a zenith of expressiveness. His groups of figures in movement (Apollo and Daphne, Villa Borghese, Rome) represent a renunciation of the closed form of the Renaissance in favour of a looser pictorial treatment and a vigorous naturalism (cf. p. 327). The marble group of St Teresa (S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome; ill. 230) in its mystical exaltation becomes the prototype of the altarsculpture of the Baroque. He also excelled in portraitbusts (Louis XIV, Versailles; ill. 234) and tomb-sculpture (Tomb of Urban VIII, St Peter's, Rome).
BIBIENA, GALLI DA. Fathers, sons and grandsons (e. g. Ferdinando, Giuseppe, Carlo) of this Italian family of artists vitally stimulated the theatrical architecture and stage decorations (movable backdrops) of the Baroque. Their designs, disseminated by engravings, influenced the building of theatres and stagescenery all over Europe.
BLOEMART, ABRAHAM ( 1564-1651), is the founder of the so-called school of Utrecht, which was important for Dutch painting as the vehicle for Italian influences. He painted biblical and mythological pictures in bright and pleasing colours.
BLONDEL, JACQUES-FRANæOIS ( 1705-1774). This architect, a native of Rouen, has left a number of great buildings in Metz (Town Hall, Parliament building, Bishop's Palace), Cambrai and Strassburg. In 1739 he