Revising for Readers: Audience Awareness in the Writing Classroom
KAREN A. SCHRIVER
Audience. Revision. These topics resonate for composition teachers and researchers. Over the last two decades, we have seen a burgeoning of work on audience and revision. Although the efforts in these areas have not been fully integrated, we can draw at least one conclusion: We need new research-driven pedagogies for helping students to revise for readers. The ability to revise one's prose for an audience is a valuable asset in school or in the workplace. But up to this point, we have seen few teaching methods developed from what research and experience have shown us. Redefining revision in the classroom cannot occur unless we are able to translate research into action. Just what have we lear Ned that teachers can employ and that writers can use? My aim here is to provide research-driven advice for helping writers to anticipate readers' needs. To do so, I first review the research on audience awareness and revision processes. Then I illustrate how the research can be applied in the classroom by providing a case study of a revision problem. Finally, I offer some ideas for teaching revision.
Rhetoricians have been concer Ned with the study of audience since antiquity and the impact is readily apparent in the curricula of most writing classrooms.